b'G LOSSA R YDosimeter Fission FusionA device such as a film badge which can The splitting of an atomic nucleus result- The union of atomic nuclei to form heav-be worn by a person (or placed some- ing in the creation of lighter elements, ier nuclei resulting in the release of enor-where in the environment) and is used to heat, free neutrons, and other particles. mous quantities of energy. The processmeasure the radiation dose received over Fission product usually requires conditions of extremea period of time. heat and pressure.Electron Any of several lighter elements or parti- Gamma radiationcles created by the nuclear fission of aAn elementary particle consisting of a heavy element such as uranium. High-energy, high penetrating electro-charge of negative energy. Electrons are Flux magnetic radiation emitted in the radioac-said to circle the nucleus of an atom. tive decay of many radionuclides. TheyEmergency Core Cooling System The flow or stream of neutrons emanat- are similar to X-rays.ing from nuclear fission. Geiger counterAn emergency backup system designed Fossil fuelsto inject cooling water into the core of a An instrument used to detect and measurereactor in the event that the normal cool- Coal, oil, and natural gas are referred to beta and gamma radiation.ing system fails. This safety requirement as fossil fuels because they are the Half-lifeis intended to prevent the overheating of remains of plants and animals that livedthe fuel and subsequent melting. on earth millions of years ago. The time it takes for one-half of anyEnriched uranium Fuel cycle given number of unstable atoms to decay(disintegrate). Half-life is unaffected byUranium which has been modified from The life cycle of a fuel including the temperature, pressure, or chemical condi-its natural state to contain a higher con- complete sequence of steps beginning tions surrounding the substance.centration of the isotope uranium-235 with mining and refining an ore and end- Hot cellthan natural uranium. ing with the disposition of the wasteExcursion products after the fuel has been benefi- A specialized shielded laboratory incially used. which radioactive materials may be han-A term used to describe an unexpected or Fuel reprocessing dled with the aid of remotely operatedaccidental increase in the power level of manipulators. The walls and windows ofa nuclear reaction. A chemical process, usually involving the laboratory are made of materialsFallout several steps, that recovers uranium-235 designed to protect workers from gammaand other fissionable products from spent and other radiation.Radioactive particles and gases resulting fuel. Hot runfrom a nuclear explosion which gradually Fuel assemblydescend to earth. An operational (or test) run of a chemicalFilm badge An arrangement of nuclear fuel and its process and equipment using radioactivecladding material into a particular form materials.A piece of masked photographic film and shape for use in a nuclear reactor. Hot settlement Pondworn by nuclear workers. The film is Fuel may be assembled in plates, rods ofdarkened by radiation and can be ana- various diameters, or other shapes. An outdoor basin, usually lined at thelyzed to indicate how much exposure the bottom with clay, in which liquids con-film and the badge wearer received over taining radioactive particles are sent toa period of time. evaporate. Solids settle to the bottom,where they are adsorbed onto the clay.3 0 9'