b'A P P E N D I X Eactive catalysts. As specially applied to nickel- Finnigan MAK Gas Mass few molecular layers of a samples surface. T h ebased intermetallic compounds, this approach pro- Spectrometer Model 271/2511990 primary function of the Neutral Molecular Beamvides a technique by which highly active Research Team:R. Rankin, K.W. Guardapee, Surface Probe is the analysis of surfaces of non-hydrogenation catalysts can be prepared and L.L. Dickerson electrical-conducting materials. Asimilar tech-regenerated by elevated temperature oxidation/ nique has been used with charged atomic particlereduction treatment of the starting material. Joint entry:Finnigan MAT Corporation beams for many years to analyze surfaces of elec-FiberOptic Moire Interferometry trically conducting materials, although the tech-D e s c r i p t i o n The 271/251 gas mass spectrometer nique is applied with great difficulty to insulatingSystem1990 :defined the state-of-the-art in instrumentation for materials. Other techniques, notably fast neutralResearch Team:V. Deason, M.B. Ward the analysis of noble gases in the environment. atom beams (FAB sources) have been used withThe unique aspect of this instrument is that it some success, but the nature of their productionD e s c r i p t i o n The FiberOptic Moire combines two diverse gas analysis functions, precludes sharp focusing. In addition, the FAB :Interferometry System, Model FMI 1700, is a usually requiring separate instruments, into a sin- source must be mounted quite close to the speci-major advance in an important new technique gle entity. The instrument performs both gas men, and that constrains the secondary ion sourcediffraction moire interferometry. Diffra ct i o n composition and gas isotope ratio analyses. In design. The new Neutral Beam is much easier to moire is used for the study and measurement of addition, typical isotopic precision capabilities use, allows much sharper focus, and increasesdistortion, stress, and fracture. The FMI was with gas mass spectrometers were on the order of sensitivity about 1000 fold over systems usingdeveloped at the INELin response to serious 0.03%. This product has been able to exceed ch r a ged particle beams on insulating specimens. failings to the existing diffraction moire systems. these values by more than an order of magnitudeThe FMI utilizes advanced optical fiber compo- (0.001%), thereby significantly extending the Biodegradation System for nents in a compact portable unit to replace an state-of-the-art in high precision gas isotopic Toxic Organic Waste optical table full of standard optical devices. analysis. Highly precise measurement of the con- Processing1988These fiber optic components are in all cases centrations of the gas isotopes in the atmosphere Research Team:J.H. Wolfram, R.D. Rogerssm ler , lighter, and more stable than the discrete is indispensable to environmental studies involv-a lcomponents normally used. At the same time, the ing nuclear facilities. This work has been recog- D e s c r i p t i o n :Disposing of hazardous waste is aFMI greatly simplifies the experimental process, nized internationally; instruments based on these high-priority item for every organization that pro-which until now has been complicated and designs are now in use in Europe and A si a duces it. Virtually every hospital, research univer-.tedious using conventional equipment.Simion PC/PS2 4.01989 sity , and biotechnology company in the U.S.D i ffraction Moire Interferometry, for which the produces small quantities of hazardous wastes ofFMI was developed, allows the researcher to Research Team:D.A. Dahl, J.E. Delmore, A.D. o rganic compounds (e.g., toluene, xylene, andmake highly accurate (better than one Micron Applehans pseudocumene). The first two of these com-resolution) measurements of deformation. T h i s pounds are on the EPApriority pollutant list. AD e s c r i p t i o nS : IMION PC/PS2 4.0 is a personal mixture of these compounds is know as liquiddeformation could be the result of stresses on a computer program for designing and analyzing scintillation cocktail when the mixture also con-ships hull, an airplanes frame, bridge, piping in c h ar ged particle (ions and electrons) lenses, ion tains radioactive materials. The Biodegradationa nuclear plant, or other critical area. transport systems, and all types of mass spectrom- System presented here introduces organisms toUnderstanding the relationship between stress, eters and surface probes that utilize charged parti- the cocktail that detoxify it at very high levels ofdeformation, and such factors as aging, load, cor- cles. The program, which became available in effic en. The system includes a bioreactorrosion, and material properties is crucial to icyJune, 1988, has exclusive capabilities that signifi- (where living cells feed on the toxic materialsreducing the heavy burden on the economy and cantly expand the number and types of problems and produce carbon dioxide), accessory hardware,society of structural failures (estimated at tens to that can be addressed, problems that heretofore and a supply of the detoxifying microorg an i s ms .hundreds of billions of dollars annually, pluswere impossible to model with existing programs. Once installed, the system will continually bio-extensive loss of life and productivity).Neutral Molecular Beam Surface process an inflow of the cocktail, rendering it safeD i ffraction moire measures deformation in a Probe1988 for conventional disposal through the sewer sys-specimen by creating full two-dimensional maps tem if the radioactivity is within prescribed limits,of the corresponding deformation in a diffr an Research Team:J.E. Delmore, A.D. Apprelhans, or as low-level radioactive waste otherwise. T h is cti ograting bonded or marked on the surface of the and D.A. Dahl eliminates the high cost of packing and transport-spi ing the mixed waste to the very few authorized e cme n.D e s c r i p t i o n This device produces a well focused: disposal sites. Sanctioned methods for handlingbeam of high energy neutral sulfur hexafluoride the waste at present are incineration and long-molecules at energies ranging from 3 to 23 keV term storage. Converting the waste at the sitethat can be transported many meters under vacu- eliminates dependence on these methods and theum while retaining sharp focusing, to probe the cost associated with them.279'