b'C H A P T E R 22J U M P I N G T H E F E N C Ebeen an AEC commissioner, became 1974, as Secretary of the Interior. Lt.the first Secretary of Energy and a Governor John Evans moved into themember of the presidents cabinet. 20 g o v e r nors chair in 1977 and then won his own election as governor in 1978.With these changes, the nations nuclear Charles E. Williams, previously theenterprise had effectively been shifted deputy manager at the Nevada Test Site,from the custody of a powerful congres- succeeded Glenn Bradley as IDO manag-sional committee to the executive er in 1976. Aerojet lost its bid to extendbranch. The route to political influence its operating contract in 1976, and thebecame far more diffuse than it had new prime contractor was EG&G Idaho.been. Presidential politics became atleast as important as congressional poli- Evans continued the Andrus campaigntics, and this contributed further to the to remove nuclear waste from Idaho. Atdecline in nuclear research already his first opportunity, a public hearing onunderway. For example, one of Carters waste management, he reminded ERDAINEEL Cultural Resources goals was to eliminate the countrys of its obligations to Idaho. Evans want-Charles E. Williams dependence on nuclear energy by the ed an action schedule and I respectful-year 2000. Schlesinger organized DOE ly request that this commitment be putnot by types of fuel (nuclear, fossil, in writing. The Idaho Potato Growersgeothermal), but by different processes and Shippers and many others com-along a continuum from research mended Evans for his stand. The gener-through development to commercializa- al sentiment was that the sooner thetion. The organizational chart changed waste was removed from above thefrequently during the 1980s, but the old aquifer, the better. 22sheltered autonomy, such as it was, ofthe AEC/JCAE system was gone for DOE canceled its plans to develop agood. 21 repository in Kansas, setting back anyplans it may have had to remove wasteThe forces that had changed the nuclear from Idaho during the 1970s. Evansoutlook at the national level had gath- responded by turning to the nationalered their strength from the local politi- waste management picture, investingcal dynamics of the nations fifty states. considerable energy in the NuclearIdaho citizens had no commercial Power Subcommittee of the Nationalpower plant upon which to focus their Governors Association. The best hopeconcern about environmental degrada- for Idaho to see the last of the waste wastion, their fear of nuclear accidents, or to assure that national policy created atheir protests to the Cold War arms better place for it. He felt that Idaho hadrace. But they did have the INEL. little legal means of preventing DOEfrom sending new wastes to Idaho in theLeadership at the Idaho governors interim. But, he said, I would use theo ffice, the IDO, and IDOs prime con- powers of this office to protest in thetractor all changed about the same time. strongest possible manner. I think thatCarter drafted Cecil Andrus, who had kind of public pressure would stop it. 23 won his second term as governor in219'