b'N O T E S20. Cass Peterson, Rocky Flats: Risks Amid a 31. Radioactive Waste Hearing, 581. 9. (Early training) Crews Train in Idaho forMetropolis, Washington Post, December 32. Whether to measure the concentration of a A-Submarine, Idaho State Journal,12, 1988, 1. contaminant at the point of discharge or at February 22, 1953. Thanks to Kenhi Drewes21. Anderson, History of the RWMC, 22. the point of its use downstream later became and Hal Paige, interviews with author,22. Clyde Hammond, October 15, 1998. the subject of regulatory definition. February 4, 1999, for discussions of training33. Bruce Schmalz, interview with author, program.23. (Backfill) John Commander, personal com- February 1, 1999. See also Radioactive 10. Polmar and Allen, Rickover, 297-301.munication to author, June 29, 1999; (strike) Waste Hearing, 589. 11. (Rickover quote) Polmar and Allen,Anderson, History of the RWMC, 31; (effi- Rickover, 302; (cross-training) Kenhiciency) George Wehmann, interview with 34. John Horan, Draft of Interview, Mr. John Drewes and Hal Paige, February 4, 1999.author, September 29, 1999. Horan with John K. Harrop and Joseph J.24. Anderson, History of the RWMC, 28. Shonka, Summer 1994, p. 4. 12. Ronald Schiller, Submarines in the Desert,According to EG&G, Waste Management 35. Radioactive Waste Hearing, 602. Colliers(February 5, 1954): 91.Program, History of Buried Transuranic 36. John Byrom, personal communication to 13. Kenhi Drewes, Hal Paige, February 4, 1999;Waste at INEL, (Idaho Falls: EG&G Report author. (cooling pond) Mary Freund, interview withNo. WMP77-3, 1977), p. 8, waste arriving 37. Arrowrock Group, Context Plan, 146. author, February 2, 1999.at this time included contaminated materials 14. On aircraft carriers, cargo such as tanks offrom other governmental experimental sites 38. (Pellets) Leroy Lewis personal communica- lubricating oil could be located to offeraround the nation. tion to author. shielding opportunities around shipboard25. (Upper limits, flooding, guidelines, Interim 39. See INEELphotos 56-3201, -3203, -3205, - reactors. USS Enterprisewas launched onBurial Ground) Anderson, History of the 3206, -3207, and -3208. September 24, 1960.RWMC, 19, 33, 30, 27. 40. INEL, Idaho National Engineering 15. Clay Condit, interview with author,August26. Anderson, History of the RWMC, 30; (quota- Laboratory Historical Dose Evaluation, 25, 1999.tion) Radioactive Waste Hearing, 584.Volume 1, Report No. DOE/ID-12119 16. To Governor from Henry Dworshak, April 8,27. Anderson, History of the RWMC, 35. (Idaho Falls: IDO, 1991), pp. iii, v-vii, 6-8. 1961, IHS Mss 84, Box 122 B, File: AEC-28. Formal definitions of high-level, low- Later DOE expenditures on the removal of Idaho Plant; to Robb Brady from Henrylevel, TRU, spent fuel, and other categories waste from below ground were justified on Dworshak, April 8, 1961, IHS, Mss 84, Boxof radioactive waste have changed over time the basis that these pathways should not ever 122 B, File: AECIdaho Plant.and have become more complex; recent def- find a human population at any time in the 17. (Criticality date) Naval Reactors Facilityinitions are found in the Energy Policy Act long-range future. pamphlet, no date, no page numbers. Forof 1992, Title 10 of the Code of Federal C H A P T E R T E N more on the U.S. Navys quest for silentRegulations (CFR), Part 60 and in DOE submarines and the compromises madeOrder 5820.2A. At the INEEL, high-level 1. Polmar and Allen, Rickover, 167. among silence, depth, and speed, see Tyler,waste refers to the solid and liquid wastes Running Critical, The Silent War, Rickover,resulting from chemical separations done at 2. Bettis Plant, Expended Core Facility, and General Dynamics(New York: Harperthe Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. TRU Maintenance and Operations Guide and Row, 1986). See Tom Clancy, The Huntwaste contains alpha-emitting transuranic (Pittsburgh: Westinghouse, 1958), 3. for Red October(Annapolis, Md.: Navalelements (like plutonium-contaminated Hereafter, ECF Guide. Institute Press, 1984) for a fictionalizedwaste from Rocky Flats) with half-lives of 3.ECF Guide, v.The ECF was designed by the account of the competition between the two20 years or more and concentrated at 100 AECs Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, superpowers; and Submarines, Secrets, andnanocuries per gram of waste or more. Low- managed by Westinghouse. Arthur G. Spies, a NOVAtelevision programlevel waste, typically disposed or stored at McKee & Co. was architect/engineer; and produced by the Documentary Guild forthe Burial Ground, in general contains lower Paul Hardeman, Inc., general contractor. WGBH/Boston with Sveriges Television,concentrations of radionuclides per gram of 4. ECF Guide, 14. Later equipment allowed for copyright 1999.waste than high-level and TRU waste. See the unloading of a cask without having to 18. Elizabeth S. Rolph, Nuclear Power and theDOE, Linking LegaciesReport No. plunge the cask into the water. Public SafetyDOE/EM-0319 (Washington, D.C.: DOE , 24-26.Office of Environmental Management, 5. Edgar L. Juell, A Short History of the 19. (Sidebar) U.S. DOE and U.S. Department of1997), pp. 31-70. Expended Core Facility, (Idaho Falls: Naval Defense, The United States Naval29. (Handbook) Radioactive Waste Hearing, Reactors Facility, 1990), 9-11 (excerpt p. Propulsion Program(Washington, D.C.:581. For the general AEC philosophy on 10). GPO), 19.concentrating and reducing volumes of 6. Juell, A Short History of ECF, 12. 20. Rolph, Nuclear Power and the Publicwaste, see remarks by Dr.Abel Wolman in 7. (Three cores) ECF Guide, 15; (MTR Safety, 26.the hearing on p. 8-10. irradiated fuel) Juell, A Short History of 21. Clay Condit, August 25, 1999.30. Radioactive Waste Hearing, 581, 589. ECF, 9.8. Juell, A Short History of ECF, 13.2 8 7'