b'P ROVING THE P RINCIPLE19. Scientech Report, p. 6-7, References 76-80, 7. Rhodes, Atomic Bomb, 711, 740. Estimates Laboratory at Berkeley, California, did not82. on TNT yield equivalent differ. Rhodes carry the title of national laboratory. Other20. Scientech Report, p. 2-31. source was the Committee for the AEC production centers made plutonium21. Scientech Report, Reference 92. Compilaton of Materials on Damage Caused and other weapons materials.by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and 18. Pike quoted by Kevin Richert in Original22. Scientech Report, Reference 67, p. 7; Nagasaki, p. 21, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AEC Site Spawned Eastern Idahos `GoldReference 88. (Basic Books, 1977, 1981). Rush, (Idaho Falls) Post-Register, May 15,23. Depleted uranium was a byproduct of 8. Jack M. Holl, Argonne National Laboratory, 1994, H-20; (Hafstad) Hewlett, Atomicuranium enrichment plants at Oak Ridge, 1946-1996(Urbana: University of Illinois Shield, 210.Tennessee. It contained less than the natural Press, 1997), 40. 19. Hewlett, Atomic Shield, 196, 206. amount of the isotope of uranium-235. The 9. See Holl, Argonne, 62. 20. Hewlett, Atomic Shield, 210.material has several uses. In breeder reactors, 10. (Groves approval) Holl, Argonne, 40. For anit can be bred into Plutonium-239 and then account of the early deliberations of the 21. Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, Survey on Fortfissioned. It is used in armor-piercing shells, AEC, see Richard G. Hewlett and Francis Peck, Montana, and Pocatello, Idaho, Sitesin tank armor, and for counterbalances on Duncan, Atomic Shield, 1947/1952 (Detroit: Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, Marchaircraft control surfaces. For Elsie, Marsh see (University Park: Pennsylvania State 1949), 1, 41 (fog).Scientech Report, p. 2-72. University Press, 1969). 22. Hewlett, Atomic Shield, 218.C H A P T E R T H R E E 11. Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (Public Law 79- 23. Robert Smylie, interview with author, July585). 8, 1998, Boise; Idaho Termed Top Favorite1. Edward R. Landa and Terry B. Councell, 12. For a history of early corporate interest in for Plant Site, (Idaho Falls) Post-Register,Leaching of Uranium from Glass and nuclear energy, see Mark Hertsgaard, March 16, 1949, 1.Ceramic Foodware and Decorative Items, Nuclear, Inc., The Men and Money Behind 24. Arco Area to Get West Atomic Plant,Health Physics63 (No. 3, September 1992): Nuclear Energy(New York: Pantheon Post-Register, March 22, 1949, 1. See also343. Books, 1983). letter to Mike Mansfield from David2. Raymond W.Taylor and Samuel W.Taylor, 13. See Hewlett, Atomic Shield; Herbert York, Lilienthal, March 29, 1949, IHS AR 2/22,Uranium Fever; or No Talk Under $1 The Advisors, Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Papers of Governor C.A. Robins, Box 1,Million (New York: Macmillan, 1970), 79. Superbomb(San Francisco: W.H. Freeman Series 1, File: Arco Atomic Energy3. In some reactors, such as the fast-fissioning and Company, 1976); and Herbert York, Plant/part 1; (hearings) Hewlett, AtomicEBR-II, some U-238 atoms will fission. Race to Oblivion(New York: Simon and Shield, 211.4. Norman Polmar and Thomas B. Allen, Schuster, 1970). 25. Station Manager Named, Post-Register,Rickover, Controversy and Genius, A 14. David Lilienthal, Atomic Energy,A New April 4, 1949, 1.Biography(New York: Simon and Schuster, Start(New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 1. C H A P T E R F O U R1982), 118-120. Enrico Fermi observed 15. John Tierney, Take the A-Plane: The $1uranium fission in a 1934 experiment. He Billion Nuclear Bird that Never Flew, 1. Who cares for letterheads? Arcothought the fission products were new Science82 (Jan/Feb 1982): 47; Henry W. Advertiser,April 29, 1949, 1; Arco Chiefelements and did not recognize them as Lambright, Shooting Down the Nuclear Wonders if Neighbor is Lacking in Brotherlykrypton and barium. Four years later, Airplane(Syracuse, NY: Inter-University Love, Idaho Daily Statesman,April 29,Austrian physicist Lise Meitner realized that Case Program No. 104, 1967), 3; Susan M. 1949; Idaho Falls Pulls Back on Publicitythe uranium atom had actually split apart. Stacy, Idaho National Engineering as Atomic Capital, Post-Register,April 26,5. William Benton, The Annals of America, Laboratory: Test Area North, Hangar 629, 1949.Volume 15 (Chicago: The Encyclopedia Historic American Engineering Record ID- 2. Station Manager Named, Post-Register,Britannica, Inc., 1968), 601-602. 32-A(Idaho Falls: Lockheed Martin Idaho April 4, 1949, 1.6. Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb Corporation, 1994), 10. 3. Because of the Navys resistance to giving(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 427; 16. Susan M. Stacy, Idaho National Engineering up the proving ground, the AEC discussedStephane Groueff, Manhattan Project: The Laboratory,Army Reactor Experimental other locations for the MTR, EBR, andUntold Story of the Making of the Atomic Area, Historical American Engineering Navy reactors as late as mid-July; Hewlett,Bomb(New York: Little, Brown, and Co., Record ID-33-D(Idaho Falls: Lockheed Atomic Shield, 218.Bantam, 1967), 55-56; Taylor, Uranium Martin Idaho Corporation, 1998), 5. 4. Jacqui Johnston Batie, interviews withFever, 81; Polmar and Allen, Rickover, 120. 17. Hewlett, Atomic Shield, 196, 202-204. In author on October 14, 1998, and March 14,The first two of these sources and Richard 1948 the AEC research laboratories were 1999; Bill Ginkel, interviews with author onG. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr., The Argonne, Chicago; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; October 13, 1998, and February 3, 1999;New World, 1939-1946(Philadelphia: Brookhaven, New York; and the new and undated news clipping supplied byPennsylvania State University Press, 1962) Knolles laboratory in Schenectady.The Los Jacqui Batie, Leonard E. Johnston, AECare histories of the Manhattan Project. Alamos Science Laboratory in New Mexico Chief Here Takes New Job, Reports Say.focused on weapons research. The Radiation282'