b'G l o ss a ryActivation product Aquifer Boiling water reactorUpon bombardment with neutrons, some A water-bearing stratum of permeable A nuclear reactor concept in which thematerials absorb neutrons into their rock, sand, or gravel. coolant, water, is permitted to boil as itnuclei, forming new and usually radioac- Background radiation absorbs the heat of the nuclear reaction.tive isotopes. The resultant steam drives a turbine andAlpha particle The radiation in an ambient environment. generates electricity.It includes cosmic rays from outer space, Breeder reactorA positively charged nuclear particle radon gas, and other forms of radiationidentical with the nucleus of a helium from natural sources (such as granite) and A nuclear reactor concept in which theatom. It consists of two protons and two human-made sources (dental X-rays, fall- operation produces a net increase in fis-neutrons. Alpha particles can be stopped out from nuclear explosions). sionable material. That is, more fission-by a sheet of paper. Beta particle able material is produced than isAnti-Cs consumed.An electron or positron ejected from the CalcineSlang speech meaning anti-contamina- nucleus of an atom during radioactivetion, referring to special clothing worn decay. The mass of an electron is equal to As a noun, the dry solid (grainy or granu-by people requiring protection from radi- 1/1837 that of a proton. It can be stopped lar) product of a chemical process remov-ation. by an inch of wood or a thin sheet of alu- ing liquids from a solution. As a verb, theAtom minum. heating of a material at a high tempera-Bin set ture to drive off volatile materials.The smallest particle of an element that Cerenkov radiationcan exist either alone or in combination A cluster of storage containers at thewith other elements. Atoms are made up Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering A blue-white light produced whenof electrons, neutrons, and protons. Center built to store solid calcine waste. gamma rays hit electrons in water. TheAtomic energy The waste is highly radioactive, and the energy of the gamma rays is sufficientlybin sets are heavily shielded. great that the electrons move through theEnergy that can be liberated by changes Blowdown water faster than light moves throughin the nucleus of an atom, such as by fis- water.sion or fusion. Contemporary scientists A term used to describe sudden depres- Cesium-137prefer to use the term nuclear energy. surization upon the breaking of a pipeAtomic number carrying pressurized water. A radioactive isotope of the elementcesium, which emits gamma radiation. ItA characteristic of an element, the num- is an important fission product.ber of protons in the nucleus.3 0 7'