b'C H A P T E R 23T H E E N D O W M E N T O F U RA N I U Mlike the special graphite fuel used in So dry storage cells were added to the the tiny percent of U-235 in the naturalrocket propulsion experiments in Chem Plant landscape. Fuel from Peach metal, as a benefit to human society.Nevada, could not be stored in water Bottom Atomic Power Station, Water-moderated reactors had been eas-due to undesirable chemical reactions. Pennsylvania, and Ft. St. Vrain Nuclear ier to develop, but they wasted urani-Generating Station, Colorado, eventual- um. Second, the nuclear industry wouldly arrived in Idaho for safekeeping. reprocess spent fuel in commercialplants similar to the Chem Plant. SpentMeanwhile, the power of anti-nuclear fuel would not be stored indefinitely asprotests (overshadowed, some histori- a waste, but recycled to conserve theans think, by the management mistakes resource. Third, the disposition ofof the electric utility industry) was radioactive waste would in due coursederailing the progress for uranium that yield to both scientific and politicalscientists and policy-makers had taken solutions. 33for granted since the 1950s. Scientistshad expected, first, that breeders would President Carter and many of his staffeventually replace water-moderated believed that civilian nuclear energyreactors because only breeders fulfilled offered opportunities for the illicitthe endowment of all uranium, not just assembly of nuclear weapons. A LosAEC-67-7886 Alamos physicist named TheodoreTaylor contended that it would be easyto divert nuclear materials from com-mercial operations and make bombs. Asa nuclear weapons insider since theManhattan Project, Taylors credibilitywas regarded as excellent by many, andhe described his fears in forums such asthe New Yorkermagazine. At the sametime, the number of nations in theworld which had developed sufficientexpertise to conduct nuclear weaponstests grew to include India, which deto-nated a nuclear device in May 1974.Brazil and Pakistan seemed to be nextin line; West Germany was about tosend Brazil both a fuel enrichmentplant and a fuel reprocessing plant. 34Above. Peach Bottom fuel elements, consisting ofuranium and thorium carbides clad in graphite,before they were loaded into the reactor. The reactorwent critical on March 3, 1966, with 682 elementsloaded in the core. Left. The New Waste CalciningFacility calciner vessel.INEEL 81-30722 31'