b'C HAPTER E IGHTEENT H E S H A W E F F E CT . . .It appears also that [long-term changes at the NRTS] will be influenced by technology trends,national policy, and other factors largely outside the control or option of the immediatecommunity or the State itself.William Ginkel, 1967T installed backwards. The problem took discover the management failures thatless time and money to fix than the ear- must have caused the mishap, anhe ATR start-up lier problem, and in an earlier day, intense process that further postponedgroup was having a bad day, and itmight have been considered just one of the start-up. 2wasnt the first one. It was preparing to the routine bugs that accompany anybring the reactor critical for the first complex new project. As a former aide to Admiral Rickover,time. As the operators rotated the con- Shaw had been exposed to the safetytrol cylinders, they saw that the count- This time, the ATR start-up problems philosophy of the Nuclear Navy. Asrate recorders were not behaving and parts failures came under the close wholeheartedly as Rickover, heaccording to prediction. It could mean a scrutiny of Milton Shaw, since late believed in accident prevention viadelay like an earlier one when the stain- 1964 the director of AEC-Headquarters excellence, quality control, and redun-less-steel coolant pipe had been acci- Division of Reactor Development and dancy. He once said of himself, Mydentally over-pressurized. Some of the Technology. He sent investigators to wife jokes that when I build a dogpipe, thirty-six inches in house, itll withstand adiameter, had bulged and seismic event.deformed. The pipe was Although such featuresruined. Replacing it had had not been absentcost millions of dollars from NRTS safety phi-and a year of time. 1 losophy, the principlesof Site remoteness andIn the face of this new geographical separationtrouble, the team shut of reactors had beendown the reactor, major guarantors of pub-opened the pressure ves- lic safety. It was likelysel, removed the fuel, that if Shaw chose toand inspected. T h e y assert his convictions,soon discovered that the the shift in emphasisdrive mechanisms for would change the com-the sixteen control fortable old way ofcylinders would not doing things at therotate on command. Aerial view of TRA looking south. The large ATR INEEL 68-3496 NRTS. 3Each of the drive units had been building is at right of photo. Its associated coolingtowers are below it and farther to the right.1 7 4'