21 Understanding nuclear graphite Graphite is a core component in a number of high-temperature reactor designs. These advanced reactors will require nuclear-grade graphite that is far more robust than the stuff of pencil lead. To ascertain the underlying mechanisms responsible for graphite- oxygen corrosion in graphite, an INL team worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure gas transport of oxygen and reaction products within porous graphite microstructures. This knowledge is critical for accurately predicting oxidation behavior of graphitic core components and resulting deleterious effects to physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This research was published in the prestigious journal Carbon, likely the first published transport measurements on nuclear graphite materials in the past 50 years. Managing EV charging expectations As electric vehicle adoption becomes more widespread nationwide, questions remain about how charging expectations and infrastructure will keep pace. Last year, several INL studies shed light on these issues. One examined the extreme fast charging that would recharge an empty EV as quickly as filling up a gas tank. The resulting report explained the technology gaps at the battery, vehicle and infrastructure levels. Another study quantified the impact of cold temperatures on charging rates. Researchers analyzed data from a fleet of Nissan LEAFs operated as taxis over roughly 500 charging events in New York City. Under the coldest conditions, the rate of charging was roughly three times slower than at warmer temperatures. The ElectricVehicle Infrastructure Laboratory at INL