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National Leadership Notable Collaborations Growing Capabilities Technology Innovation Regional Leadership ON THE COVER Preparing specimens for nanotechnology research. See inside cover. ImpactsIdaho National Laboratory Research Development ii Director As scientific and technological advances are realized tested scaled and deployed the world becomes cleaner safer and better able to handle our greatest challenges energy security climate change water quality and shortages and global security to name a few. At Idaho National Laboratory we see the results every day of our applied science focus in the next generation of nuclear reactors in industrial plants that run more efficiently use less water and produce fewer emissions in advanced vehicles that reduce fossil fuel consumption in the trails we blaze daily in cybersecurity and wireless technology advancements and in the ballistics- resistant armor we design and develop to protect U.S. combat troops. FROM THE Mark Peters Director Idaho National Laboratory This issue of Impacts highlights INLs scientific and technological innovation notable collaborations and national and regional leadership efforts from the past year including Productive partnerships with academia industry and federal state and local governments that allow us to solve complex problems while driving economic growth and making American industry more competitive on a global scale now and into the future. Research and development moving from the laboratory to market that increases our impact and is vital in demonstrating and deploying nuclear energy and broader clean energy solutions. Products developed that enable industry and government at the federal state and local levels to coordinate critical infrastructure protection efforts and ensure the nations health safety and security. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the important work being done at INL the nations lead nuclear energy research and development laboratory. Mark Peters January 2016 1 Contents National Leadership INL experts guiding work toward national and international energy solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Notable Collaborations Successful relationships with industry academia and other government agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Growing Capabilities Specialized applied science infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Technology Innovation Innovations in nuclear energy advanced energy and national and global security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Regional Leadership Multidisciplinary research efforts with government and academic partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 TABLE OF Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor Battelle Energy Alliance nor any of their employees makes any warranty expressed or implied or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy completeness or usefulness of any information apparatus product or process disclosed or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. References herein to any specific commercial product process or service by trade name trade mark manufacturer or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement recommendation or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. Reference to the term Partner in this Report should not be construed as a legal relationship or the existence of a legal entity. Editor Sarah Robertson Writers Nicole Stricker Joseph Campbell Misty Benjamin Graphic artist Kristine Burnham Photographer Chris Morgan On the cover This nanomill uses ultra-low energy to generate a concentrated ion beam to remove very small layers from a radioactive specimen. Researchers can perform characterization on the resulting sample using a transmission electron microscope. Prepared by Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls Idaho 83415. Managed by Battelle Energy Alliance LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC07-05ID14517. 2 Science ResourceAN APPLIED Idaho National Laboratory INL is distinct within the U.S. Department of Energys national laboratory complex for its strong focus on engineering and applied science. Exceptional expertise strategic partnerships and a growing one- of-a-kind testing infrastructure converge here to create an incubator that helps new ideas mature toward the marketplace. A White House Summit on Nuclear Energy in November launched the Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear GAIN to provide the nuclear energy community with single-point access to nuclear-energy capabilities and expertise across the DOE complex. INL is coordinating this initiative which aims to provide small businesses industry and university partners with easier access to technical regulatory and financial support necessary to move new or advanced nuclear reactor designs toward commercialization while ensuring the continued safe reliable and economic operation of the existing reactor fleet. Earlier in the year one of the most powerful demonstrations of INLs impact on world-changing science was demonstrated when after a journey of 3 billion miles lasting more than nine years the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA New Horizons mission finally flew by Pluto and its mysterious moons. The craft is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator Since the labs founding as the National Reactor Testing Station it has always focused on testing and demonstration that helps reduce risks associated with deploying new concepts for large-scale real-world use. Collaborations Throughout the publication the sym- bols below denote projects involving external collaborations with Universities Other national labs International entities Private industry Government entities UniversitiesUniversitiesUniversities 3 that was assembled tested and prepared for launch by INL researchers. New knowledge and scientific discoveries have been flowing from New Horizons since its closest approach to Pluto on July 14. INL created a new art exhibition that explains several areas of the labs research. An Idaho artist worked with scientists to create the exhibit which highlights scientific research that is advancing humankind and can also be beautiful. The exhibit offers a novel way for people to engage with the lab learn about its work and meet some of its scientists. The laboratorys important work drew interest from a number of high-profile visitors in Fiscal Year 2015. For example in June INL hosted a joint visit by the heads of two important DOE offices. DOE assistant secretaries John Kotek of the Office of Nuclear Energy NE and David Danielson of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE met with INL researchers industry partners and Idaho officials to discuss ways to enhance and promote better relationships between national laboratories academia and the private sector. The Advanced Test Reactor ATR Transition to Commercial Power Modification Project was chosen by flagship construction magazine Engineering News-Record ENR as the first-place winner in the energy-industrial category of its 2015 Best Projects competition for the mountain states. The project demonstrated the successful collaboration of a DOE national laboratory with a European manufacturer to design fabricate test and install a custom-built Uninterruptible Power Supply UPS that meets stringent U.S. nuclear safety and quality assurance requirements. This resulted in improved operational safety and reliability significant carbon emission reductions and major operating cost savings for Americas leading nuclear energy research reactor. A different kind of research on the INL Site is offering insights into the past. INL archaeologists were able to pinpoint the exact location on DOEs Idaho Site where a World War II B-24J Liberator bomber crashed during a training run out of Pocatello 70 years ago. INL historians mapped the location discovered a crewmans class ring and helped his daughter visit the site where her father had died. The site has been chosen to represent Idaho in the federally sponsored Making Archaeology Public project which will commemorate the 50th anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act in 2016. INL archaeologists helped a family visit the site of a 1944 bomber crash on the INL desert. 4 LeadershipNATIONAL Coordinating national solutions The Department of Energys national laboratories are home to some of the worlds most powerful lasers fastest supercomputers and talented researchers. This system of 17 labs provides an invaluable resource to decision-makers academia and private industry. As an objective source of expertise and analysis national laboratories such as INL are uniquely qualified. Whether theyre leading national discussions coordinating diverse teams of experts or making distinctive research assets available INL experts are part of a crucial national resource. Starting national conversation INL coordinated a nationwide brainstorming session about innovation in nuclear energy. INL organized a collaborative group of national laboratories universities and thought leaders from diverse backgrounds to start a dialogue surrounding some of the toughest questions about the future of nuclear energy as a key part of the nations energy portfolio. The Nuclear Innovation Workshops simultaneous meetings in six U.S. cities paved the way for a paradigm shift on how nuclear energy research development demonstration and deployment RDDD is defined and conducted. These efforts identified specific pathways for deploying nuclear energy technologies more quickly and cost-effectively. Elements of that conversation were incorporated into the new Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear GAIN initiative announced at the White House in November. Facilitating international discussion on cybersecurity During the International Atomic Energy Agencys International Conference on Computer Security in a Nuclear World INL hosted a live demonstration depicting a cyberattack at a nuclear power plant. The demonstration a collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the National Nuclear Security Administration opened up an international dialogue about the emerging challenges associated with cyber- and physical security at nuclear installations. Todd Allen INLs deputy lab director for research and development facilitates a talk about nuclear energy. 5 Supporting NASA INL played a substantial role in the yearlong NASA-led effort to study a sustainable strategy for provisioning safe reliable and affordable nuclear power systems for NASA missions and needs in the next 20 years. INL contributed information about assembly test and launch operations for missions at Kennedy Space Center. Also INL led completion of the book Atomic Power in Space II a history of radioisotope power systems and space reactor power and propulsion systems developed from the early 1980s through 2013. Helping industry speed deployment of new systems Leadership from INLs Advanced Manufacturing Division organized and co-chaired an inaugural Advanced Manufacturing workshop at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Approximately 60 participants from industry academia and national laboratories attended and participated in discussions about Efficient Manufacturing Better Industrial Catalysts Shifting the Focus to CompositionsKinetics and the Energy- Water Nexus. Guest speakers and panelists included representatives from GE Research W.R. Grace Co. Aramco Services Co. and The Dow Chemical Company. A number of new collaboration discussions resulted from the workshop. a Atomic Power in Space II Chapter 9 ATOMIC POWERIN SPACE II ATOMIC POWER ATOMIC POWER A History ofSpace Nuclear Powerand Propulsion in theUnited States INLEXT-15-34409 The researchers are studying power systems for NASA missions. 6 LeadershipNATIONAL Energizing the EV conversation INL released an analysis of the largest collection of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle PEV and charging infrastructure demonstrations in the world. To answer critical questions and enable widespread adoption of PEVs several concurrent projects installed roughly 17000 charging stations and deployed approximately 8300 PEVs across the U.S. INL researchers collected and analyzed the resulting data. Their results were downloaded more than 1000 times and generated media coverage reaching more than 140 million people. A key finding was that public charging infrastructure is not needed everywhere to enable widespread PEV adoption. Instead charging infrastructure should be focused at homes workplaces and public hot spots that serve multiple venues. The findings will be used to support DOEs EV Everywhere Grand Challenge. This work earned INL a Distinguished Achievement Award from the DOE- EERE Vehicle Technologies Office. Protecting energy sector assets Collaborating with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security cybersecurity researchers at INL identified two malware attack campaigns with the potential to impact energy sectors across the country. These campaigns were the focus of a three-week 15-city project to train energy sector professionals. The lessons learned from sharing this information directly helped an energy installation protect its assets during a hurricane. Plugged In How Americans Charge Their Electric Vehicles Findings from the largest plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration in the world Improving energy at U.S. military bases INL is helping the Department of Defense analyze and implement numerous integrated energy systems on military bases across the nation and the world. Laboratory experts are advising on projects that increase usage of renewable energy and reduce reliance on diesel generators at military bases. Laboratory assistance includes planning technical advice systems integration analyses field testing and construction oversight to secure clean reliable energy to power the mission. INL experts have advised on projects for Army Navy and Air Force bases in Utah California the Caribbean Japan and Guam. 7 8 CollaborationsNOTABLE Sharing access to national assets National labs exist partially to conduct research and development that falls outside the scope of industry or academia. Collaboration with entities beyond DOE expands access to public research assets and helps achieve nationally significant results. To enhance INLs commitment to working with university partnerships and collaborations with industry the lab launched a new Partnerships Directorate. This directorate helps share relevant capabilities to foster advanced scientific discovery and deploy new technologies for economic growth. Helping industry test new systems When DuPont wanted to evaluate higher value applications for its cellulosic ethanol coproducts it found a solution in DOEs Biomass Feedstock National User Facility BFNUF the most complete feedstock preprocessing RD facility in the world and its associated Process Demonstration Unit PDU. The PDU is a completely integrated pilot-scale biomass preprocessing system with a capacity of 2 to 5 tons per hour. Its capable of processing a variety of feedstocks including crop residues and grasses wood chips and logging residues and even municipal solid wastes to provide industrial feedstocks for testing and validation of conversion processes. The PDU was a natural choice for DuPont to test new processes and iron out potential unforeseen issues before taking on the costs of a full-scale production attempt itself. During 350 hours of operation over 10 weeks the test generated tons of a prototype product for DuPont. Researchers at the BFNUF have worked with more than a dozen companies to help address biomass and biofuel challenges so each company can take its products to the next level. 9 Promoting smart grid communications In collaboration with the DOEs Office of Electricity Delivery Energy Reliability OE INL hosted a program meeting to establish technology gaps in smart grid adoption. The meeting provided DOE-OE with information to develop a road map for research and development which will advance the integration of wireless technologies power generation and communications and control systems. This supports the goal set forth by Congress to modernize the nations electricity grid to improve its reliability and efficiency. Nuclear fuel recycling Both the U.S. and Europe are researching ways to improve nuclear fuel recycling processes that separate useful energy resources from waste products. For the first time in 20 years INL was invited to participate as the U.S. representative to the European Unions research framework on the topic a program now known as Safety of Actinide Separations Processes Program or SACSESS. INL completed a number of solvent irradiation tests in its one-of-a-kind radiolysishydrolysis test loop to support both the EU program and DOEs Fuel Cycle Technologies program. Understanding radiations effects on reactor components Understanding how radiation affects reactor components and fuel is critical for the continued safety and reliability of existing light water reactors and advanced reactor materials. In 2015 INL completed fracture toughness tests on irradiatedlight water reactor internal materials alloys X-750 and XM-19. The work which supports the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI represented the first use of new Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking IASCC facilities at INLs Materials Fuels Complex MFC to perform fracture toughness tests. The resulting data when combined with previously obtained IASCC data will represent some of the most complete data on irradiated mechanical properties for these alloys. CollaborationsNOTABLE 10 Performing multilab simulations Novel concepts for improving energy storage and distribution need to be modeled and simulated before being tested in the real world. INL can perform such tests with its real-time digital simulator which can incorporate actual system hardware or software in the simulation. This year INL demonstrated the ability to connect its simulator with one at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado. The connection enables the labs simulators to feed data to each other and answer questions that neither lab could accomplish alone. Reducing nuclear threats INL assisted the NNSA in reaching milestones in removing and securing nuclear materials across the globe with the removal of highly enriched uranium from Uzbekistan. In addition three irradiators that could have been used in radiological dispersal devices were removed. Strengthening wireless network for first responders A robust nationwide wireless communication network is necessary for police firefighters and other first responders to stay safe and do their jobs. As the lead DOE center for critical infrastructure and communications cybersecurity as well as being home to one of the largest test and evaluation ranges in the nation INL is supporting the First Responder Network Authority FirstNet to strengthen the cyber- and physical security of these networks. 11 Supporting international medicine In 2015 INLs one-of-a-kind ATR took on an experiment containing the largest amount of fissile material ever irradiated there. The results will support licensing and startup of a vital new South Korean reactor capability which will be used for medical isotope production. The Ki-Jang Research Reactor KJRR will be the first reactor designed around the proliferation-resistant low-enriched uranium fuel in support of medical isotope production. Before inserting the experiment INL engineers used a new software suite consisting of the HELIOS and MCNP codes to upgrade the reactors Core Safety Assurance Package. These technicians are preparing the KJRR experiment for insertion in the reactor. 12 Capabilities Strategic Infrastructure INL is continually upgrading an irreplaceable array of scientific and engineering capabilities that can address a variety of energy research needs today and in the future. The full complement of capabilities allows INL to respond to todays nuclear energy challenges serve as a multiprogram laboratory with broad competencies in energy and national security and address future challenges. GROWING Ensuring drinking water security The availability of clean safe water is crucial for the health and prosperity of our nation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA built the Water Security Test Bed WSTB at INL to focus on improving Americas ability to safeguard our water systems and respond to contamination incidents and natural disasters. WSTB Research will help develop methods for decontaminating pipes and equipment and designing a more resilient infrastructure. The test bed was 13 constructed with excavated water pipe from a decommissioned INL facility and off-the-shelf commercial products to simulate conditions within existing drinking water utilities. This type of pipe is likely to be found in a typical U.S. city and tends to absorb things differently than newer pipe. Radiography reactor overhaul One of INLs most important and unique nondestructive research tools the Neutron Radiography Reactor NRAD was restarted after completion of a nearly 14-month overhaul-and-upgrade project. The effort was essentially a life extension to ensure that NRAD will be able to sustain its capabilities for several more decades with greater reliability and capacity. NRAD can significantly reduce the time and cost of examining irradiated materials by allowing researchers to see inside samples and identify features or flaws that may require further study. TheWSTB on INLs desert Site will help ensure drinking water security for the nation. 14 Demonstrating new capabilities In the event of a radiological emergency specially trained first responders need effective proven methods of reconstructing the event. This year INL conducted the nations first demonstrations of realistic radiological dispersal devices providing federal agencies with scientific experimentation that advances nuclear forensics and measurement capabilities in the U.S. Testing vehicle charging strategies INLs Electric Vehicle Infrastructure EVI laboratory provides independent third-party testing and standardization necessary to ensure accuracy and consistency among EV charging products. EVI testing ensures that levels of efficiency meet industry standards charging systems work consistently across brands and other criteria. The lab recently underwent significant expansion and now includes conductive and wireless charging devices for a regular home outlet 120 volt AC a heavy-duty home outlet 240 volt AC and a vehicle fast-charging unit 480 volt AC. It has enough charging stations to handle eight vehicles at once. More than 20 different charging systems have been analyzed at INLs EVI lab whose researchers collaborate with teams across the country to develop and validate codes and standards for safe efficient charging stations. CapabilitiesGROWING Training radiological first responders INL developed a hands-on training program for first responders. The course introduced different methods for managing incidents involving radiation both accidental and malevolent. The pilot course was presented at the State Preparedness Training Center in Oriskany New York by a team of instructors from the lab. This facility was chosen for the pilot because of its realistic urban training environment which allows first responders to put into practice skills and techniques they learned during the training. This is a demonstration of a process for fabricating nuclear fuel. 15 Fabricating nuclear fuel INL employees successfully demonstrated an extrusion process for fabricating metallic fuel slugs to support cooperative research for the Washington- based advanced reactor company TerraPower. Using extrusion rather than casting has the potential to reduce the cost of producing fuel since the extruded pins can be produced more efficiently than casting methods with a smaller waste stream. Evaluating nuclear fuel properties INL developed a new scientific approach for studying the thermal properties of nuclear fuel systems. The approach can be used for future nuclear fuels and materials RD. INLs Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the labs research development and initial use of significant experimental capabilities for characterizing thermal properties. Enabling nuclear investigation INL demonstrated a newly operational radioisotope mass separator RMS a device that will improve the accuracy and precision of nuclear forensics analysis providing critical information about nuclear sites and materials. Employing a range of tools and techniques nuclear nonproliferation experts investigate the source origins and enrichment level of nuclear materials. The RMS is co-sponsored by the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office DNDO and the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI. Supporting space exploration Deep-space exploration missions require heat and electrical power from radioisotope power systems fueled with the plutonium-238 isotope. INL stores and manages the U.S. supply of neptunium for use to produce Pu-238. A critical component of the isotopes production is repackaging neptunium-237 oxide NpO2 for shipment to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. In 2015 INL successfully established the ability to repackage NpO2 in INLs Fuel Manufacturing Facility at MFC. A researcher working on the newly operational radioisotope mass separator. Technology INNOVATION The forefront of innovation Through research innovation testing and evaluation INL helps industry apply new energy solutions. As a strong multiprogram national laboratory INL is internationally recognized as a valuable science and engineering asset. The following pages describe cutting-edge developments from the past year as well as the people behind the technologies. Recovering critical materials INL helped develop a new technology that aids the recycling recovery and extraction of rare earth minerals. These elements have a key function in permanent magnets used in cars cellphones and hard disk drives. The technology uses a combination of hollow fiber membranes organic solvents and neutral extractants to selectively recover more than 90 percent of rare earth elements such as neodymium dysprosium and praseodymium. The single-step process to recover these elements from scrap magnets is more environmentally friendly and has the potential to be more cost-effective than conventional approaches. Licensed to U.S. Rare Earths Inc. it is the first commercially licensed technology developed through the Critical Materials Institute a DOE Energy Innovation Hub. CMI explores ways to assure supply chains of materials critical to clean energy technologies such as wind turbines electric vehicles efficient lighting and advanced batteries. The Critical Materials Institute directly leverages INLs expertise in nuclear fuel recycling because rare earth elements and other critical energy materials have chemistry similar to components in used nuclear fuel. 16 90 AMOUNT OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS THAT CAN BE RECOVERD USING INL-DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGY P E R C E N T 17 Recognizing Expertise Krzysztof Gofryk The nuclear engineer was selected by DOEs Office of Science as one of 44 scientists to receive funding as part of DOEs Early Career Research Program. Krzysztof has gained recognition for his research in actinide materials under extreme conditions. Dr. David Nigg The Laboratory Fellow was recognized as an American Nuclear Society Fellow the highest membership level within ANS. The distinction is reserved for senior members who have compiled a professional record of significant contributions advancing nuclear science engineering and technology. Dr. Shannon Bragg-Sitton The nuclear engineer received the ANS Mary Jane Oestmann Professional Womens Achievement Award for her exceptional contributions to the U.S. Department of Energys Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and nuclear hybrid energy programs. Advanced reactor sensors National DOE missions aim to develop advanced capabilities that can monitor in-pile conditions inside a nuclear reactor. One INL project monitors nonintrusive active noise sources emanating from within the reactor to determine what is happening inside. The researchers analyzed frequency harmonics and compared changes in the acoustic signature to physical phenomena documented in the reactor logs. The team then developed the first panoramic view of acoustic signals showing different ATR process states from startup to shutdown. Qualifying new nuclear materials Some next-generation reactor designs require materials that can withstand more heat than current reactors. Steels and other alloys for nuclear reactors today can withstand temperatures up to 750 degrees C but the next generation of reactors will require materials qualified for up to 950 degrees C. One such material is a nickel- based metal mixture called Alloy 617. INL and other national lab scientists have been gathering data to determine its behavior specifically high-temperature strength and the effect of welding on these mechanical properties. The team submitted its analysis of Alloy 617 characteristics to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME which maintains the consensus code that defines material properties that engineers reference to ensure safe design. This effort represents the first attempt in more than 20 years to qualify a new high-temperature nuclear reactor material. Technology 18 Improving the process of recycling nuclear fuel The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the United States. A new capability for krypton Kr and xenon Xe capture research was established at INL. This capability allows for the study of the selective capture of Kr and Xe from used nuclear fuel recycling off-gas simulants to support the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies Off-Gas Sigma Team. Ensuring safe battery performance In 2015 INL published two battery test manuals outlining standardized test procedures for different automotive energy storage applications. By offering a reliable resource for evaluating different technologies the manuals contribute to INLs reputation as an honest broker for information about automotive battery technology. The work provides just one example of how INL evaluates performance and helps manufacturers and end users understand the science that makes batteries perform certain ways. INNOVATION A researcher conducting battery performance tests. 19 Recognizing Expertise Dr. David Xianming Bai The computational scientist received The Minerals Metals and Materials Society TMS Young Leader Professional Development Award which recognizes individuals under the age of 40 for their potential as future leaders within the materials and engineering community. Dr. Bruce Mincher The radiation chemist was selected as an INL Fellow. The designation of Laboratory Fellow recognizes an individuals outstanding contributions to the scientific and engineering community. Dr. Brad Merrill The nuclear engineer received the Outstanding Achievement Award from the ANS Fusion Energy Division which promotes the development and timely introduction of fusion energy as a sustainable energy source with favorable economic environmental and safety attributes. Analyzing risk A new version of INLs SAPHIRE Systems Analysis Programs for Hands- on Integrated Reliability Evaluations risk assessment software was released in FY 2015. This software suite is the primary risk assessment tool in use at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC and NASA. Improving reactor system simulation Under DOEs Light Water Reactor Sustainability LWRS Program the RELAP-7 Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program-7 development team released a new users manual and theory manual so external users may begin testing the code. The RELAP-7 application is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code. The overall design goal is to take advantage of the previous 30 years of advancements in computer architecture software design numerical integration methods and physical models. 20 Technology INNOVATION Protecting electricity substations In the early hours of April 16 2013 one or more shooters fired 120 to 150 rounds with an assault rifle at an electricity substation in California causing more than 15 million in damage to 17 transformers. It was clear that a similar attack at a larger substation had the potential to knock out power to millions of customers. In response INL researchers and armor experts developed a patent- pending protective ballistic barrier system designed for cost-effective protection of valuable substation equipment. Bolstering cybersecurity The DHS Cyber Security Evaluation Tool CSET which was developed with the help of cybersecurity experts at INL was released to the public and is available for download from the ICS-CERT website The software guides organizers through a step-by-step process to assess their control system and information technology network security practices against industry standards. CSET was used by more than 6000 security professionals and is the standard tool for cybersecurity self-assessments. Deploying innovative security software DHS launched the Infrastructure Protection Gateway Map Viewer capability developed by INLs geospatial technologies team. The Map Viewer application provides infrastructure protection analysts across the U.S. with data on more than 150000 critical facilities and assets. This helps federal state local and industry partners coordinate their infrastructure protection activities. Recognizing Expertise Jennifer Turnage The manager of INLs Emergency Response and Readiness unit and her staff were applauded for presenting successful radiological response training. The team was commended by the chief of the Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Science branch of the U.S. Army Medical Department for the quality and depth of training that is assuring the nations readiness to respond to a radiological incident. Paul Moskowitz The senior national security analyst has worked with the DHS and NNSA to protect the U.S. from radiological attacks by so-called lone wolf terrorists and those who belong to a group or network. He helped a multilaboratory team identify adversary capabilities to design risk- mitigation strategies at sites with radiation sources that could be at risk to attack. Andy Bochman The senior cyber and energy security strategist is frequently requested to provide briefs and insight into the challenges associated with securing Americas electric grid. Most notably he provided a briefing to the Senate National Lab Caucus and the 2015 Washington Post Cybersecurity Summit. 21 INL researchers developed a patent-pending ballistic barrier for electricity substations. 22 Technology INNOVATION More intelligent chemical production The conventional processes used to make the chemical building blocks of many modern consumer goods are enormously energy-intensive and can result in hard- to-treat waste streams. INL researchers are using a cutting-edge Temporal Analysis of Products TAP reactor system to examine individual reaction steps of a complex catalytic mechanism on a complex catalytic surface. This information makes it possible to optimize or design multicomponent industrial materials to deliver a specific product or chemical. The TAP reactor system is located in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies a public research facility that can be accessed by researchers from other national laboratories academia and industry. Recognizing expertise Anne Gaffney The INL Fellow and director of Process Science Technology at INL received the 2015 Eugene J. Houdry Award from the North American Catalysis Society. Anne is the first female recipient in the awards 44-year history. She was recognized for developing chemical processes that save time money and the environment. Richard Barney Carlson The INL research engineer performed a study recognized as one of the years top accomplishments for the U.S. DRIVE Vehicle Systems Analysis Tech Team VSATT. A summary of Barneys research on 12-volt auxiliary loads was published by U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Hollie Gilbert INLs historical archaeologist led research at the site of a WWII B-24 bomber crash that will represent Idaho in the National Historic Preservation Acts Making Archaeology Public Project MAPP. The INL site was unanimously chosen from six Idaho sites nominated for the 50th anniversary celebration in 2016. 23 TheTAP reactor lets researchers design advanced catalytic materials that consume far less energy while minimizing byproducts and waste streams. Leadership Engaging regional stakeholders Resources concentrated along the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains and northern plains are rich in diversity and offer a foundation for additional energy solutions. INL engages its expertise with universities state and community leadership to bring together multidisciplinary research partnerships because regional engagement will provide a foundation for developing these resources. REGIONAL Geothermal energy research heats up The U.S. Energy Information Administration projects that geothermal electricity generation could more than quadruple by 2040 increasing to over 67000 gigawatthours enough to power about 6 million American households for a year. Such levels could help California and other states with renewable portfolio standards satisfy their mandated renewable generation requirements. Resource estimates for enhanced geothermal in the 13 Western states amount to 500 gigawatts of power generation with about 47 GW coming from Idaho. 24 25 The INL-led Snake River Geothermal Consortium was one of five groups selected to potentially develop an Enhanced Geothermal Energy field laboratory for DOE-EEREs Geothermal Technologies Office. Phase 1 studies for the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy FORGE are underway. If initial work pans out the group could be one of three selected for Phase 2 which involves up to 29 million in funding. The consortium includes two other DOE national laboratories six universities six private companies and an advisory panel representing regulatory agencies industry and environmental groups. Facilitating technology commercialization The Idaho Department of Commerce established the Idaho Autonomous Systems Center of Excellence ASCE in partnership with INL and CAES. The ASCE will hasten development deployment and commercialization of technologies that advance Idaho competitiveness especially in the area of agriculture technology. CAES provides technical leadership for ASCE and contributes expertise in data science systems engineering policy and regulation. The INL-developed Grid Game teaches students about electric grid complexity resilience. Teaching grid management INL and university researchers developed a desktop simulation that lets users play at managing the electrical power grid. Each Grid Game player gets a client and a virtual grid. Points are earned by providing power and used to buy more grid assets and grow the grid. Its a big balancing act. When a utility generates more power than is in demand machines speed up until circuit breakers shut them down. When demand outpaces generation machines slow down leading to brownouts and blackouts. More sophisticated simulations are available in the industrial sector but the Grid Game is ideal for students and Idahos Meridian Technical Charter High School led a pilot rollout in 2015. 26 Expanding the talent pipeline INL took action this year to fill the pipeline of potential future employees with talented scientists engineers technicians and support personnel. In all 350 interns and more than 30 postdoctoral employees were hired in FY 2015. A highly competitive postdoctoral opportunity designed to attract recruit and inspire early career researchers was announced. In addition the INL joint appointment process was revised to make it easier to do two-way appointments. LeadershipREGIONAL 3000TEACHERS AND 60000STUDENTS WERE REACHED THROUGH SCIENCE FAIRS CLASSROOM PRESENTATIONS COMMUNITY EVENTS SCIENCE BOWLS AND HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES 650EDUCATORS PARTICIPATED IN I-STEM SUMMER TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTES ACROSS THE STATE ONE HUNDRED FIFTYYOUNG WOMEN PARTICIPATED IN MY AMAZING FUTURE 1000 NATIVE AMERICAN STUDENTS AND THEIR TEACHERS PARTICIPATED IN INL-LED STEM EVENTS THIS YEAR 350INTERNS AND 30 POSTDOCTORAL EMPLOYEES FROM UNIVERSITIES ACROSS THE NATION CAME TO INL IN 2015 Delivering the benefits of INL technology to consumers INLs Technology Deployment Department cooperates with the labs research directorates to deploy technologies that support the nations energy and security missions. During FY 2015 U.S. businesses sold roughly 51 million in products processes and innovations based on INL-patented technologies. And 27 new U.S. patents were issued to either INL or to the DOE based on the inventions of INL scientists and researchers. This year a How to Do Business with INL Guide was published and posted on making it easier for potential partners to connect with researchers and to understand the variety of agreements under which work can be accomplished. More than 350 interns were recruited to work on real-world projects under the guidance of mentors who are experts in their fields. 27 28 ATRComplex Materialsand FuelsComplexMFC Research andEducation CampusREC Centerfor Advanced EnergyStudies CAES CentralFacilitiesAreaCFA IdahoNuclear Technologyand EngineeringCenterINTEC RadioactiveWaste ManagementComplexRWMC CriticalInfrastructure TestRangeComplex CITRC Specific Manufacturing Capability SMC NavalReactors FacilityNRF INL SITE AdvancedAdvanced Manufacturing Capability ATRComplex FacilityNRFFacilityNRFFacilityNRF IdahoNuclear Technologyand EngineeringCenterINTEC CriticalInfrastructure TestRangeComplexTestRangeComplex CITRCCITRC IdahoNuclear FuelsComplexMFC CriticalInfrastructureCriticalInfrastructure TestRangeComplexTestRangeComplex CriticalInfrastructure TestRangeComplex INL SITEINL SITE EngineeringCenterINTEC Materialsand FuelsComplexMFCEngineeringCenterINTECEngineeringCenterINTECEngineeringCenterINTECATRComplex Technologyand EngineeringCenterINTEC CriticalInfrastructure TestRangeComplexTestRangeComplex CITRCCITRC Technologyand EngineeringCenterINTECEngineeringCenterINTEC CriticalInfrastructure TestRangeComplexTestRangeComplex CITRC ATRComplex CentralFacilitiesAreaCFA RadioactiveWaste ManagementComplexRWMC ATRComplex CentralFacilitiesAreaCFACentralFacilitiesAreaCFA RadioactiveWaste ManagementComplexRWMC ATRComplex CentralFacilitiesAreaCFACentralFacilitiesAreaCFACentralFacilitiesAreaCFACentralFacilitiesAreaCFACentralFacilitiesAreaCFACentralFacilitiesAreaCFA EngineeringCenterINTECEngineeringCenterINTEC Specific ManufacturingManufacturingManufacturing Capability SMC andEducation CampusREC Research andEducation CampusREC AdvancedAdvanced EnergyStudiesEnergyStudies CAESCAES Research Only at INL Unmatched capabilities INLs isolated geography and physical infrastructure provide unparalleled opportunities to test and demonstrate new technologies that help protect the nations resources and advance energy security. The preceding pages have highlighted numerous capabilities that exist nowhere else in the U.S. The resources described here exemplify INL research assets that are truly unique to Idahos national laboratory. 29 By the numbers 890 SQUARE MILES OF ISOLATED FACILITIES IN IDAHO DESERT ONE NUMBER OF NATIONAL LABS REPORTING DIRECTLY TO DOES OFFICE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY 52 NUMBER OF MOSTLY FIRST-OF-THEIR- KIND NUCLEAR REACTORS DESIGNED AND BUILT AT WHAT IS NOW INL 10000 ROUGH NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO TOUR INL FACILITIES EACH YEAR Advanced Test Reactor Analytical Lab Fuel Conditioning Facility Hot Fuel Examination Facility Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking test rig Space and Security Power Systems Facility Transient Reactor Test Facility Utility-scale 60-mile isolatable power grid Water Security Test Bed Wireless Test Bed Armor and explosives test range Nuclear Radiological Activity Center multiple areas Radiological Response Training Range Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity data analysis Battery testing facilities Biomass Process Demonstration Unit Carbon Characterization Laboratory Dynamic Energy Storage Lab Human System Simulation Laboratory High-temperature Test Lab Microscopy and Characterization Suite National Infrastructure Protection Test Bed. Specific Manufacturing Capability Analytical Lab Fuel Conditioning Facility Hot Fuel Examination Facility Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking test rig Space and Security Power Systems Facility Transient Reactor Test Facility Utility-scale 60-mile isolatable power grid Water Security Test Bed Wireless Test Bed Armor and explosives test range Radiological Response Training Range Biomass Process Demonstration Unit Battery testing facilities Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity data analysis High-temperature Test Lab Human System Simulation Laboratory Dynamic Energy Storage Lab Carbon Characterization Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor Specific Manufacturing Capability National Infrastructure Protection Test Bed. Microscopy and Characterization Suite Nuclear Science User Facilities Biomass Feedstock National User Facility Wireless National User Facility National Scientific User Facilities INLABOUT More information Sarah Robertson 208-526-0490 In operation since 1949 INL is a science-based applied engineering national laboratory dedicated to supporting the U.S. Department of Energys missions in nuclear and energy research applied science and national security. 15-50499 Idaho National Laboratory P.O.Box 1625 MS 3760 Idaho Falls ID 83415