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1 ImpactsIdaho National Laboratory Research Development Nuclear Leadership Collaborations Educational Contributions New Capabilities Science Engineering Director April 2012 The U.S. Department of Energys national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research innovation testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators academia or private industry alone. Idaho National Laboratorys engineering expertise and applied science capabilities are particularly focused on deployment of technologies for nuclear energy national security and new energy resources. A broad array of infrastructure nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL the nations nuclear energy laboratory. In these and other areas INL uses these capabilities to innovate evaluate and deploy new technologies that help protect the nations resources and advance energy security. Productive partnerships with academia industry and government agencies also help deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INLs Impacts magazine highlights our newest leadership efforts capabilities collaborations and research accomplishments. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative innovations at one of the nations premier applied-science laboratories. FROM THE Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor Battelle Energy Alliance nor any of their employees makes any warranty expressed or implied or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy completeness or usefulness of any information apparatus product or process disclosed or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. References herein to any specific commercial product process or service by trade name trade mark manufacturer or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement recommendation or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. Reference to the term Partner in this Report should not be construed as a legal relationship or the existence of a legal entity. Editor Nicole Stricker Graphic artists Kristine Burnham David Combs Photographer Chris Morgan John Grossenbacher Director Idaho National Laboratory 1 Contents Nuclear Leadership Collaborative efforts for the Energy Departments Office of Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Advancing Energy Security Highlights of multiprogram energy and security innovations . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Collaborations with New partnerships with industry academia and agencies both international and domestic . . . . . . . . 10 New Capabilities Unique test-bed and applied science infrastructure enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Advancing Technology Innovations in nuclear research energy resource development and security infrastructure . . . . . . . . 20 Other Contributions Highlights about the labs business sustainability and educational contributions. . . . . . . . . . 32 TABLE OF 2 The Nations Nuclear Energy Lab INL is pioneering a model of leadership for the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Nuclear Energy DOE-NE. The model helps DOE-NE unite leading scientists and engineers with the world-class capabilities unique facilities and the synergistic environment needed to conduct transformational nuclear research development and demonstrations RDD. INL also is helping define how DOE-NE can work more closely with the nuclear energy industry by evaluating its RDD needs and identifying where government capabilities may contribute. Complex-wide guidance INL input and expertise continue to help DOE-NE develop a research strategy consistent with its Nuclear Energy Roadmap. INL is leading development of the roadmap implementation plans and guiding a research model that integrates broad technical expertise to match research endeavors with the right facilities and capabilities. DOE-NE has selected INL to develop a new RDD plan for used fuel storage and transportation. The plan will include specific science-based activities necessary to close knowledge gaps and will identify facilities and resources needed to complete activities identified in the plan. INL also is leading a DOE-NE effort to devise a research plan for the development of accident-tolerant nuclear fuels. Stewardship of research infrastructure is another important component of INLs contributions. INL led the development of DOE-NEs 20-year Facilities for the Future of RDD report which evaluates existing infrastructure capabilities needs and options for closing gaps. As steward to the overwhelming majority of core nuclear energy RDD capabilities INL A sophisticated furnace which has since been installed in a hot cell at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility is prepared and tested in the Fuel Conditioning Facilitys mock-up area. LeadershipNUCLEAR is helping to establish and optimize the use of a fully integrated set of multipurpose capabilities. A science-based approach INL has led a fundamental shift in how nuclear energy research and development is approached at universities national labs and within regulatory and policy organizations. These efforts are transforming the way DOE-NE executes its nuclear research portfolio through the integration of fundamental research modeling and simulation small-scale experimentation and larger scale demonstrations that are closely coordinated with industrial and international partners. This approach can make engineering-scale irradiation and testing far more focused and efficient. It may also eliminate some costly prototype demonstrations. Light-water reactor modeling The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors CASL one of the DOEs Energy Innovation Hubs is developing a set of predictive models 3 that simulate a light water reactor power plant. These simulations will help improve operating efficiencies extend operating lifetimes and reduce operating costs and waste volumes. The partnership which includes several DOE laboratories leading universities and industries selected the INL- developed MOOSEBISONMARMOT modeling and simulation code suite as the basis for its fuels performance application read more on page 21. INL is expanding the use of science-based nuclear energy research a complex undertaking that has direct applications for developing advanced fuels that can be used in light water reactors. 4 Nuclear Energy Summit INL organized and co-hosted the New Millennium Nuclear Energy Summit in Washington D.C. to initiate development of a long-term strategy and path forward for nuclear energy in the U.S. The summit attracted U.S. utility and energy company executives the Nuclear Regulatory Commission chairman energy policymakers from the Obama administration and other political figures. Discussions focused on U.S. nuclear energy challenges including financing public-private partnerships infrastructure and new technology development. During the summit Energy Secretary Steven Chu endorsed creation of a national clean energy standard requiring utilities to increase their use of low-carbon energy sources including nuclear and clean-coal power. National Scientific User Facility The Advanced Test Reactor ATR National Scientific User Facility NSUF expanded beyond the simple idea of providing ATR irradiation space to external researchers. The facility is now defining a new 21st century model for stewardship of critical national capabilities. According to this model unique national capabilities for reactor-based testing and analysis at universities and other laboratories are available to NSUF users which enable the best scientific ideas to be paired with the nations relevant experimental capabilities ideas rather than institutions drive the research. More than two dozen industry CEOs labor and nongovernmental organization representatives energy investors and elected officials attended the Nuclear Energy Summit co-hosted by INL in Washington D.C. LeadershipNUCLEAR CONT. 5 The Blue Ribbon Commissions final report to the Secretary of Energy noted that INLs ATR user facility exemplified the kind of RDD infrastructure that could yield particularly high returns on public investment. Last year the ATR User Facility opened the Microscopy and Characterization Suite MaCS in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Energy Studies at INL. Last year also marked the first two experiments irradiated in the newly installed ATR Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System HSIS. The system allows sample irradiation periods to be tailored to match experiment specifications irradiation no longer has to align with ATR operating and outage schedules. This flexibility allows for experiments as short as minutes and opens up new research opportunities at ATR for DOE research university experiments and industry participants. Light Water Reactor Sustainability INL and the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI are leading implementation of DOEs Light Water Reactor Sustainability LWRS program. Last year INL engaged utilities and vendors for advanced sensors and instrumentation work under the program. INL also is host and organizer of a workshop for the LWRS Advanced Instrumentation Information Control IIC Working Group. The workshops objectives include updating the IIC vision document reviewing results of pilot projects previewing the planned FY 2012 research activities and touring INL simulation capabilities. The MaCS lab enables national users to access high-end analytical equipment including an atom probe a transmission electron microscope a focused ion beam system a Raman spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. 6 LeadershipNUCLEAR CONT. Robotic assistance INL deployed one of its robotics systems along with a suite of sensors to Japan. INL robotics experts outfitted a commercially available Talon robot with radiation-hardened cameras and sensors which conferred the ability to take radiation readings stamp them with a GPS location and overlay the information on a Google Earth map. INL employees Doug Few and Robert Kinoshita left prepare theTalon robot for service in Japan and INLs Craig Conner Cal ChristensenVictorWalker and Kinoshita pose with Japanese colleagues and the robot above. International assistance Following incidents at Japans Fukushima Daiichi plant DOE asked INL to organize its national laboratory response effort. Within two days of the earthquake INL had identified points of contact at six national laboratories and had begun working with them to develop technical analyses covering a wide variety of emerging issues. INL scientists and engineers initiated studies that pinpointed issues associated with salt water cooling analyzed worst case scenario accident progression and identified remotely operated equipment capabilities that could be deployed at the Fukushima site. Senior INL managers also directly supported Energy Secretary Steven Chu during daily conference calls held to ensure that DOE was providing as much assistance as possible to the government of Japan. 7 Commission support INL supported the Blue Ribbon Commission on Americas Nuclear Future by hosting a subcommittee visit above and providing comments on the 2011 draft report. The commissioners toured INL facilities in 2010 and consulted with experts to learn about expertise and research capabilities that might influence discussions about technology development opportunities and long-term nuclear fuel storage capabilities. Accident recovery expertise The events in Japan amplified interest in the recovery at the U.S. Three Mile Island Unit 2 TMI-2 because parallels can be drawn between the two incidents. Japans Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry CRIEPI asked INL to perform research into the TMI-2 recovery effort and its applicability to the Fukushima Daiichi cleanup. INL researched these issues and summarized them in the Three Mile Island Core Debris Packaging Transportation and Storage Summary which also included research into the corrosion of spent nuclear fuel exposed to seawater. The professionalism and commitment of your staff contributed directly to the success of the Departments and the United States ability to respond to the Fukushima incident . . . This was an outstanding example of how the Department and its employees can quickly come together . . . to address an issue of national and international importance. Peter Lyons Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy 8 SecurityADVANCING ENERGY Advancing biofuels production In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy hosted a workshop at INL with government university and industry partners to forge a path forward for improving the quality of biorefinery starting material. Roughly 100 workshop participants convened at INL to discuss technical challenges and tour the Feedstock Process Demonstration Unit PDU a powerful new research platform based at the lab read more on pages 18 and 27. Assessing energy resources Energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S. are world class because of their diversity magnitude and longevity. They also provide a foundation for regional economic development. In 2011 INL conducted a comprehensive assessment of resources in this Western Energy Corridor to provide a stimulus for binational regional dialogue about their development. INL provided the Western Energy Corridor report to governors and premiers within the western region. The document provides an overview of the energy resources associated infrastructure and influences within the region. Improved energy security systems INL is a multiprogram national lab that supports deployment of new energy solutions and critical infrastructure protection. INLs isolated site test bed infrastructure and applied science focus are ideal for experimentation demonstrations and assessments that help protect the nations resources and security. TheWestern Energy Corridor report was produced at the request of Montana Governor Brian Schweitzer. Unique INL capabilities enable its researchers and collaborators to generate large quantities of test materials for bioenergy producers. Supporting inspector training INL teamed with the National Nuclear Security Administration NNSA to create a new course aimed at strengthening the training of U.S. nationals who want to apply for International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA inspector positions. The intensive two-week course which was funded by NNSA and hosted by INL gave prospective U.S. candidates in-depth hands-on training with IAEA inspection equipment and procedures. Course participants complete more than two dozen hands-on modules and train to operate equipment used in IAEA inspections. INLs remote secure site left is a proving ground for grid and wireless research.The nuclear safeguards inspection course at INL below is taught by former IAEA experts who now work at the lab. Geomagnetic storm testing Last year INL completed an Electromagnetic Pulse test to determine the effects of currents a geomagnetic storm may induce on large electrical grid transformers and downstream electrical components. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency DTRA sponsored the test which included predictive modeling of the grid effects validated through test results. Dr. Mike Kuliasha Director of DTRAs Nuclear Technology Directorate visited the test site in July and affirmed the national significance of this testing to sustainable commercial grid operations and military mission accomplishment. Additional tests are planned in 2012 to take advantage of INLs electrical grid infrastructure. Securing the grid The Department of Energys Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence DOE-IN and INL hosted a two- day workshop in November 2011 on Protecting the Nations Power and Distribution System from Emerging Threats. It brought together more than 100 leaders from the government national laboratories and private sector to address threats to the nations power grid. 9 Collaborations WITH... The nuclear energy industry Engaging nuclear and other industries is a core INL objective. As the nations lead laboratory for nuclear energy research and development INL contributes analysis and information to inform industry progress. In FY 2011 INL held or supported 21 workshops with industry government and international entities. INLs nuclear industry engagements crosscut laboratory government and commercial sectors. Sustaining the fleet Half of the nations current reactor fleet 104 reactors that supply nearly 20 percent of U.S. electricity are more than 30 years old. Sustaining and modernizing these plants is essential for their continued safe and efficient operation. Such efforts also can help bridge the implementation of new reactor designs. Several INL partnerships support modernization and sustainability of the current reactor fleet. For example INL is engaged with industry and participates in the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Utilities Working Group whose members include 41 operating sites and 69 reactors. The groups goal is to identify and prioritize research aimed at fleet sustainability and modernization. Diablo Canyon Power Plant provides electricity for nearly 3 million homes in northern and central California. PhotocourtesyPacificGasElectric 10 11 The Electrical Power Research Institute is a partner on several INL research projects including this project at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies investigating how different metallic alloys are damaged by the environment within nuclear power reactors. Testing materials The performance of materials is greatly affected by the high radiation fields inside a nuclear power reactor. INL and the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI are working together to understand stress cracking crack growth rates and the fracture toughness of various material alloys while in high-radiation environments. Reactor safety analysis INL has developed the industrys premier modeling tools for reactor and reactor fuel development and has licensed them for use to companies and universities around the world. This includes RELAP5- 3D which can be used for reactor safety analysis reactor design simulator training of operators and as an educational tool by university nuclear engineering programs. RELAP5-3D is a state-of-the-art simulation tool that allows users to model the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for various operational transients and possible accidents that might occur in a nuclear reactor. RELAP5-3D has been licensed for numerous nuclear and non-nuclear applications including modeling of jet aircraft engines and fossil power plant components. Renewed international interest in nuclear power plus development of an improved RELAP5-3D licensing process has enhanced INLs mission of advancing nuclear safety and research. 11 Updating control rooms INL experts are providing technical collaboration to utilities to review aging analog instrumentation systems. INL suggestions for improving control technologies can improve human performance bolster safety and reduce human error in power plants. New reactor designs INL has a long history of designing and building reactors so it is only natural that a wide range of reactor designers seek to collaborate with INL to learn about INL advances in nuclear fuel design human factors design principles and other areas. INL has agreements with many of these companies to share technical information and expertise. Such information can help support industrys development of both small modular reactors and larger advanced reactor designs. RELAP5-3D licenses in FY11 Domestic International Total Universities 9 7 16 Commercial Entities 12 14 26 Government Institutions 4 1 5 Total 25 22 47 During FY 2011 INL licensed RELAP5-3D to 47 diverse users. 12 Collaborations WITH... Academic institutions Partnerships with U.S. colleges and universities extend Americas academic research capabilities and help develop the workforce of the future. Academic institutions and researchers across the nation are benefiting from access to the resources capabilities and expertise at INL. Idahos research partnership The Center for Advanced Energy Studies CAES at INL is a partnership between INL and Idahos three public research universities. In FY 2011 more than 125 affiliated researchers from CAES partner institutions published more than 90 research findings and won 18.3 million in funding for research and infrastructure. CAES also continues to attract students to Idaho nuclear science and engineering university programs with more than 550 students enrolling in such programs during the Spring 2011 semester. Massachusetts Institute of Technology INL provided technical support and leadership to the MIT study The Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and INL Director John Grossenbacher is an MIT Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study Advisory committee member. MIT professor Ju Li was appointed to the newly established Battelle Energy Alliance BEA professorship for Nuclear Science and Engineering. Dr. Li will apply his groundbreaking research into atomic-scale materials behavior to a broad range of challenges including energy storage waste management and reactor materials. Wireless technology expert and MIT research scientist John Chapin visited INL as part of the labs faculty exchange program. Chapin currently serves on several industry and government advisory boards including the Federal Communication Commissions Technical Advisory Council and the U.S. Armys Independent Review Team for Technology Readiness. During a symposium for INL employees he noted how INL is positioned to support national needs related to spectrum sharing research and experimentation. In FY2011 47 students interned or conducted graduate-level research at CAES which awarded 10000 in college scholarships that year. 13 Space nuclear research The Center for Space Nuclear Research is operated by the Universities Space Research Association USRA and INL. The center is a focus for engaging university research scientists in development of advanced space nuclear systems such as power and propulsion systems and radioisotope thermal generators. The centers Next Degree Program enables students with a B.S. or M.S. in an engineering or physical science field to work half time at the center while pursuing their next degree at the nearby Idaho State University University of Idaho extension campus. Nuclear medicine research Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a promising experimental cancer treatment that could be the best option for certain aggressive types of tumors. INL is helping the University of Missouri design an experimental neutronic characterization of a new facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy research at the universitys research reactor. The partnership is a continuation of INLs longstanding collaboration with the Division of Radiation Pathology of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. A Mars Hopper designed through the Center for Space Nuclear Research and a dose estimate used for nuclear medicine research. INL has established a 10-year three-party CRADA with Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute KAERI and University of Chicago Argonne to conduct electrochemical recycling research. Collaborations WITH... Other governments and agencies State regional national and international policy makers rely upon objective data to inform their positions and decisions. So do government and industry agencies and associations. A diverse array of such partners is working with INL to research solutions to a variety of challenges. Water resource management In 2011 INL launched the Mountain West Water Institute MWWI a regional research institution dedicated to delivering solutions for sustainable water resource management in the Mountain West and the Western Energy Corridor. The Environmental Protection Agency EPA Office of Research and Development signed an agreement with INL to support the institute. INL initiated the institute by hosting the MWWI Waters of the West Workshop in Salt Lake City Utah. Attendees and speakers included representatives from water agencies and research institutions from the five MWWI states Idaho Utah Montana Oregon and Wyoming the Western Governors Association Western States Water Council U.S. EPA U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 14 INL assisted various discussions with emerging nations seeking expertise in the safe use of nuclear energy. Mongolia left India and Chile were among nations exploring safe nuclear energy training and education requirements. International Entities INL continues to provide leadership to the Generation IV International Forum for development of advanced reactors carries out research collaborations with major nuclear countries such as France Japan and South Korea and supports DOE in broad international nuclear energy engagement. Last year INL worked with the Chinese Academy of Sciences to discuss opportunities associated with hybrid energy systems. INL experts also provided coordination and technical oversight for the transport of three shipments in support of the National Nuclear Security Administrations Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program. U.S. defense agencies The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA signed a work-for-others agreement for the Deployable Reactor Program. DARPA is considering development of a small- scale nuclear reactor prototype for the on-site generation of electrical power in support of military operations in theatre. INL also supports a research fellowship program for the U.S. Air Force Research Institute. In 2011 two participants were selected to embark on research projects within INLs cybersecurity research and development department. Private industry INL works with private industry to help research develop demon strate and deploy sustainable new energy resources and systems. For example INL is working with Molycorp to improve recovery and processing of rare earth metals which are crucial for hybrid cars wind turbines and other green technologies. Cybersecurity analyses and training conducted by the Department of Homeland Security for private industry also were extensive in 2011 more on page 30. 15 CapabilitiesNEW Strategic Infrastructure INL continues to build infrastructure and acquire advanced instrumentation and tools to develop demonstrate and deploy state-of-the-art research capabilities. Capability needs outlined in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap help guide these efforts. INL initiated seven projects that work toward achieving the strategic infrastructure outlined in the INL Ten-Year Site Plan. Two of the projects were completed in FY 2011 and up to four additional projects will be initiated in FY 2012. Irradiated Materials Characterization Lab INL demonstrated considerable progress toward developing world-class post- irradiation examination capabilities in three main areas including the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory IMCL. By year-end the IMCL design was complete and construction was under way. The 8500-square- foot test bed for developing advanced characterization techniques will be a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility and will be operational by the end of calendar year 2012. The abundance of work and employees at the Materials and Fuels Complex that hosts this facility drove the need for new office space. The INL Campus Development Office completed construction of a new office building marking the first new office space at that facility in many years.Construction of the IMCL will conclude in 2012. 16 17 Energy Systems Laboratory In FY 2011 INL broke ground for the 91000-square-foot Energy Systems Lab ESL which will house bio-energy feedstock engineering advanced battery testing and integrated hybrid energy systems research. Hybrid Systems Testing Laboratories HYTEST will be completed after occupancy. INL also delivered on-schedule and on-budget the DOE Radiological and Environmental Sciences Lab RESL and obtained private investment for construction of the Research and Education Lab REL. Construction on the 149000-square-foot REL will begin in Spring 2012. We have made an investment that will support the safety of thousands of workers across the DOE complex protection of the environment and consistency in radiological work. This facility houses a couple dozen of the best scientists in the DOE complex. Dennis Miotla DOE Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Facility Operations Chief Operating Officer on the new DOE Radiological and Environmental Sciences Lab at INL. 18 CapabilitiesNEW Reactor control room upgrade INL and the DOE invested more than 13 million to replace three of the Advanced Test Reactors instrumentation and control systems. The three replacement systems distributed control system DCS console display system CDS and the annunciator system automate reactor process functions as well as monitor and display vital information to reactor staff in the control room. The replacement systems provide the same primary functionality as their predecessors while incorporating recent industry enhancements. The new systems offer leading-edge electronic and computing technology including improved network communication speed high-resolution LCD screens and improved trending and reporting capabilities. Biomass RD platform Last year INL brought the new biomass Feedstock Process Demonstration Unit PDU online. The PDU is a pilot-scale research and development platform that is modular deployable to other locations and accommodates large-scale testing of new processing approaches and equipment. Researchers can test ideas conceived in the lab by producing large quantities of feedstock so bioenergy producers can assess new recipes. The PDU provides a means to work with bioenergy producers to test laboratory-scale ideas. Biofuels PDUs also exist at other national labs but INLs is the only one that focuses on the preliminary processing formulation and densification of biomass feedstocks. Radiological Response Training Range INL completed the first full-scale exercise on its newly established Radiological Response Training Range RRTR in support of the National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center. The exercise involved close to 100 federal participants and observers and allowed the National Technical Nuclear Forensics multi-agency team to train in sample collection and analysis in a realistic environment. The Radiological ResponseTraining Range at INL enables the nations emergency responders to effectively characterize and train in environments that safely simulate scenarios they might encounter while responding to major radiological incidents. The AdvancedTest Reactor simulators control room before top and after bottom replacement of its instrumentation and control systems. 19 The biomass Feedstock Process Demonstration Unit at INL top is unique in the nation. INLs new supercomputer Fission bottom is one of the 100 fastest computers in the world. High Performance Computing The data center supporting INLs High Performance Computing HPC capabilities was modified to support Fission a high-speed supercomputer approximately six times larger than INLs existing supercomputer. The Center for Advanced Modeling and Simulation at INL CAMS will apply Fissions capabilities across a wide range of scientific disciplines to revitalize existing programs and fuel the vision for national programs. The National Nuclear Lab Exceptional expertise unique infrastructure nuclear materials and strategic partnerships converge at INL the nations nuclear energy laboratory. INLs world-class capabilities and vertically integrated infrastructure support a science-based approach experimentation theory modeling and simulation and first-of-a-kind demonstration. This approach provides technically achievable economically competitive and environmentally sustainable options for the entire nuclear enterprise. TechnologyADVANCING NUCLEAR ENERGY Powering Mars Science Lab NASAs Mars Science Laboratory which launched successfully in November is carrying the most advanced payload of scientific gear ever used on Mars surface below. Those instruments are getting their lifeblood from a radioisotope power system assembled and tested at INL left. The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator provides a continuous source of heat and power for the rover Curiosity to complete its expedition in Mars extreme temperatures and seasons. The power system provides about 110 watts of electricity and can run continuously for many years. 20 Modeling and simulation An INL team has developed a computational framework that can accelerate nuclear fuels experiments by years. The Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment or MOOSE is a computer simulation framework that advances the process for predicting the behavior of complex systems. MOOSE makes it easier to create simulations for complex mathematical models such as BISON or MARMOT which enable study of fuel behavior at scales ranging from a grain to a full pin. This sort of work has illustrated for example how tiny defects in nuclear fuel pellets can amplify over time to impact safety or energy production. This work helps the nuclear energy industry refine its understanding of operating margins to maximize efficiency without impacting safety. Radiation cleanup INL researchers have developed a technology that can remove radioactive particles or toxic metals from contaminated building surfaces more quickly and cheaply than traditional methods. The approach uses a rigid foam alone or with a specialized clay to pull contamination off porous horizontal or inverted surfaces. The new approach minimizes cost waste volume and worker exposure. The RD 100 Award-winning technology has been commercially licensed as Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology or simply Rad-Release. INL computational mathematician Derek Gaston led the INL Computational Frameworks Group that developed the revolutionary MOOSE simulation platform. INL performs a series of tests to verify that the system will perform as designed during the mission. The tests include vibrational testing to simulate rocket launch conditions magnetic testing to ensure the systems electrical field wont affect the rovers sensitive scientific equipment mass properties tests to determine the center of gravity which impacts thruster calculations for moving the rover and thermal vacuum testing to verify operation on a planets surface or in the cold vacuum of space. 21 TechnologyADVANCING NUCLEAR ENERGY Pioneering nuclear research INL has expanded the limits of nuclear research by pioneering techniques for microscopic examination of irradiated materials. Lab experts demonstrated a sample preparation technique that makes it easier for researchers to examine irradiated fuel at the nanoscale. They demonstrated successful use of a focused ion beam to prepare an irradiated fuel sample for nanoscale investigation using a transmission electron microscope. This accomplishment revealed material behavior that suggests increased stability of a new type of reactor fuel. Lab researchers are also using a Local Electrode Atom Probe to study in atomic-level detail how materials respond to prolonged irradiation. This work can help researchers understand factors that may cause weaknesses in materials exposed to prolonged radiation inside a nuclear reactor. Such studies also can provide key information for computer models which need data on a fine scale to accurately represent fuels and materials behavior. 22 Developing low-enrichment fuels INL researchers are leading the development of new low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels used in some reactors around the world. This latest effort in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative builds on years of success in converting research and test reactors to low-enrichment fuel by developing a uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel for high-performance reactors. The fuel type has been successfully tested and shown to be stable under prototypical conditions in INLs Advanced Test Reactor. Energy secretary awards Seven INL employees received awards from Energy Secretary Steven Chu for their technical assistance in Japan and Kazakhstan. Employees Doug Burns Cal Christensen Betsy Connell Harold McFarlane Joy Rempe and Derek Wadsworth were recognized for contributions to the DOEs response following Japans natural disaster that caused extensive damage to four nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. INL employee Eric Howden was honored for leading a 14-year initiative to secure 10 tons of highly enriched uranium and three tons of plutonium that originated in the former Soviet Union. Howden led the American portion of a joint U.S.-Kazakhstan effort to take inventory secure and transport the spent fuel more than 1500 miles to a more secure location. Recognizing expertise David Petti INL Fellow and technical director of the Very High Temperature Reactor Technology Development Office was selected as an American Nuclear Society Fellow. Petti was honored for leadership in development and demonstration of advanced fuels and materials. Specifically he led the re-engineering and re-establishment of industrial fabrication capability irradiation testing and demonstration of high burn-up particle fuels for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Joy Rempe an INL Fellow and a nuclear engineer with nearly 30 years of experience in reactor safety and high-temperature testing was appointed to a four-year term on the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. This committee is responsible for advising the NRC on technical health and safety impacts associated with reactor hazards. Donald McEligot received an international award at the International Conference on Engineering Education in Belfast Ireland. The International Network for Engineering Education and Research iNEER Leadership Award recognizes visionary leadership in innovative research consistent scholarship through international collaborations and pioneering contributions to engineering. Terry Todd received the Robert E. Wilson Award from the Nuclear Engineering Division NED of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. This is the NEDs highest award and recognizes chemical engineering contributions to the nuclear industry especially in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment technologies. 23 24 Clean energy challenge INL is helping the energy industry and its regulators quickly safely and securely expand energy supply improve efficiency and address environmental concerns. TechnologyADVANCING ENERGY SECURITY Expanding energy supply Researchers from INL and the Center for Advanced Energy Studies CAES formed a geothermal energy research team to explore turning the hot water flowing beneath Idaho into an economical source of power. In 2011 the team hosted a geothermal energy workshop that drew more than 70 people from industry academia government agencies and conservation groups. They worked to identify geothermal expertise at the CAES partner institutions understand industry needs identify research funding opportunities and discuss the possibility of a shared geothermal curriculum among the university partners. INL also conducted a comprehensive assessment of energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S. known as the Western Energy Corridor. INL provided the Western Energy Corridor report to governors and premiers within the region to provide a stimulus for a binational regional dialogue about resource development. A map of geothermal energy potential from INLs Western Energy Corridor report. 25 Improving efficiency Adding new transmission capacity is time-consuming and expensive. So INL wind power researchers are considering how to move more electricity through existing transmission lines. In areas where wind farms are being developed there is potential to take advantage of wind cooling on transmission lines concurrent with wind power generation. An increase in wind speed of 5 mph blowing at a right angle to a high- voltage line can cool the line enough to increase the amount of current it can safely carry between 30 and 50 percent. INL researchers are working with Idaho Power Company in a windy part of southern Idaho to translate detailed wind and temperature information into dynamic line ratings real-time estimates of how much current each 500-meter segment of high-voltage line can safely carry when wind power is being generated. The research could help make electricity more affordable and accelerate renewable energy projects. Transforming transportation systems INL is helping reduce dependence on imported fuels with analysis and technology innovations related to advanced vehicles alternative fuel development and improved energy storage technologies. Advanced vehicle deployment INL leads the Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity by collecting data and performing independent analyses of advanced vehicle fleet demonstrations across the country. Cost-shared partnerships with vehicle manufacturers charging infrastructure providers and universities encompass more than 100 industry government and academic partners. INL is collecting and analyzing data from more than 9000 electric drive vehicles and charging units. INL has collected roughly 30 million miles worth of data from 26 states and two foreign countries related to advanced vehicle operation maintenance fuel use and life-cycle cost. TechnologyADVANCING ENERGY SECURITY 26 Energy storage improvements INL collaborated with industry and academia to develop a smart battery monitoring system that can track the health of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric car batteries just as a gas gauge lets you know when youre about to run out of fuel. The Impedance Measurement Box IMB offers a new tool that the electrical industry can use to better analyze energy storage systems and improve electrical operations. It has significant application in nearly all battery markets and won the RD 100 Award as one of the most innovative inventions of 2011. INL battery testing has contributed to increasing energy densities and extending battery calendar life from two years to 10. In addition the lab is developing novel chemical solutions that improve abuse tolerance lower cost improve performance and show promise as advanced battery electrolyte materials. Enhancing biofuel quality Myriad activities demonstrated INLs leadership and numerous partnerships with industry academia government agencies and other national labs to improve the cost and quality of biomass feedstocks. INL organized a collaborative workshop and unveiled the Feedstock Process Demonstration Unit PDU a one-of-a-kind pilot-scale research and development platform read more on page 18. The Impedance Measurement Box IMB offers a quicker cheaper battery monitor that leads to more accurate lifetime predictions and doesnt drain the battery during testing as other methods may. 27 The mobile Process Demonstration Unit to be housed here will have unique capabilities not only in the nation but we think in the world. This is really the only one . . . and were extremely proud that its here in Idaho because this group has worked very hard. John Ferrell Office of Biomass Program at DOEs Office of Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy. In addition INL developed the Biomass Research and Development Resource Library which provides relevant real-world information about research biomass samples. Biomass laboratory studies traditionally have been limited to pristine plant samples which dont account for real-world variables such as industrial collection drying or grinding methods. The new biomass sample data system allows simple logging of such information so research studies can control for these variables and learn how they impact sample integrity. Finally INL organized a symposium that was chosen for inclusion at the 2012 American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting. The panel included distinguished speakers from across the biofuels research community including INL DOE the U.S. Department of Agriculture and universities in the U.S. and Canada. INLs biomass sample data system includes an extensive sample library more than 2000 samples and growing and a data system that tracks samples and provides pedigree information about their handling. 28 TechnologyADVANCING INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY Enhancing national security INLs multiprogram capabilities support critical infrastructure protection cybersecurity and nuclear nonproliferation. Applied science and real-world assessments of improved energy systems and natural resource development help secure the countrys future and protect the environment. A team led by INL ChiefWireless Scientist Dr. Hussein Moradi has developed a wireless technology platform that identifies and utilizes available spaces in the radio frequency spectrum that are not occupied by other signals. Monitoring control systems INL is developing software tools that can help utilities improve cybersecurity situational awareness of the industrial control systems that run industrial infrastructure. One of the tools being developed is the Sophia tool. It monitors network traffic and extracts the source destination and conversations between control system components to alert users to suspect activity. The Sophia software is connected passively to minimize impact to the production control system operation and it can be implemented on any control system installation. Energy sector utilities comprise most of the 13 entities currently participating in beta testing. Expanding spectrum usage INL has developed a wireless technology platform that expands use of the available radio frequency spectrum while offering a secure efficient nearly undetectable communication channel that operates below the noise floor. The technology identifies and utilizes available spaces in the radio frequency spectrum that are not occupied by other signals. A novel method for spreading the transmission signal enables its receiver to avoid frequency spectra that are plagued with interference. The technology also addresses continued commercial expansion while simultaneously serving the needs of national security public safety natural disaster response and other crucial next-generation communication systems. As the nation looks to developing new and innovative technology to make the most efficient use of scarce spectrum resources we feel that INL would be an ideal proving ground and could play an essential role in the development of a national-level spectrum-sharing wireless test bed. Andrew Clegg and Byron Barker co-chairs of the Wireless Spectrum RD Senior Steering Group National Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology RD The Sophia tool developed at INL includes a navigable 3D visualization left of network data conversations. 29 30 TechnologyADVANCING INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY Boosting cybersecurity The Department of Homeland Security DHS Control Systems Security Program continues to provide increased support to owners operators and vendors of critical infrastructure. In FY 2011 the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team ICS-CERT continued to provide key support that addressed risk to the nations critical infrastructure sectors. ICS-CERT fly-away teams right were deployed to seven organizations and the ICS-CERT published more than 100 security alerts and advisories to the ICS community warning of various threats and vulnerabilities impacting control systems. In FY 2011 the program also assisted the control systems community by conducting more than 40 cybersecurity training courses both domestically and internationally for public and private partnerships with more than 1300 attendees. Additionally more than 75 Cyber Security Evaluation Tool onsite assessments were completed and approximately 600 participants attended the Fall 2010 and Spring 2011 Industrial Control Systems Joint Working Group conferences. The ICS-CERT responds to and analyzes control systems- related incidents conducts vulnerability and malware analysis and provides situational awareness. Modeling the grid INL continues to enhance grid modeling capabilities through testing and refinement of its Real Time Digital Simulation RTDS modeling approach. In collaboration with Dr. Santiago Grijalva from the Georgia Institute of Technology INL has developed a technology roadmap defining gaps relative to Smart Grid design and implementation. Initial efforts involved development of a dynamic electric grid system model to define issues and parameters affecting power grid systems with high percentages of renewable 31 INLs RTDS helps power systems engineers above create a highly detailed power grid model. generation capacity. INL successfully modeled and compared operational data at the F.E. Warren Air Force Base. Additional collaborations will allow validation and scalability which utilities could use for renewable integration planning. 32 Business CONTRIBUTIONSINL INL business volume In FY 2011 INL did 974 million worth of business that included work for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the Department of Defense several offices within the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies. Nearly 10 percent of INLs business volume came from work for others that benefits state governments and private industry. INL employees INL employs more than 4000 people including 20 joint faculty and 11 post- doctoral researchers and numerous graduate and undergraduate student interns. Roughly 65 percent of INL employees have post-secondary certificates or degrees. Approximately half of employees work in Idaho Falls and the other half work at the labs Industrial Research Complex at DOEs Idaho desert Site. When combined with all Site contractors INL is the second largest employer in Idaho second only to the state itself and indirectly accounts for another 16000 Idaho jobs. INL by the numbers INLs customers collaborators and employees illustrate the labs broad expertise and reach. A diverse public and private customer base utilizes INL research and testing capabilities. Last year INL did nearly 1 billion worth of business and nearly one-third of its customers were from outside the U.S. Department of Energy. INL technology partners hail from across the nation and the world. SMC U.S. Army 127M DOE-Other 8M Office of Science 7M Department of Defense 72M National Nuclear Security Administration - AdvancedTest Reactor 52M National Nuclear Security Administration 109M Office of Environmental Management 23M Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 31M Other Federal Agencies 23M Work for Others 73M Nuclear Regulatory Commission 10M DOEs Office of Nuclear Energy 439M INL does research and testing on behalf of numerous offices within the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies. INLs customer base in FY 2011 Non-profitother Industry Academia U.S. research collaborators and customers INL research collaborators and customers are based around the nation and the world including Canada France South Korea Australia the United Kingdom Argentina Chile Mongolia China India and some of the areas shown here. INL business partners License agreements allow a business or other entities to reproduce manufacture sell or use INL-developed or -owned intellectual property. In FY 2011 INL signed 19 patent licenses and executed 57 copyright licenses reaching 76 total license agreements last year. In FY 2011 INL signed 10 new Cooperative Research and Development Agreements worth more than 18.5 million. Last year INL added or re- negotiated 231 federal and 56 private sector Work for Others agreements worth a combined 66 million. 33 0 1 2 3 4 5 NaturalUnitsGallonsM NaturalUnitsGallonsM 6 7 0 1 2 .5 1.5 2005 2010 2012 2005 2010 Cumulative Fossil Fuel Use Cumulative Alternative Fuel Use 2012 SustainabilityLAB Sustainability beyond buildings INL is working toward lab-wide sustainability by seizing everyday opportunities ranging from adopting advanced technologies to simply turning lights off recycling or purchasing environmentally friendly products. INL goals include energy efficiency renewable energy use recycling sustainable buildings electronics stewardship greener fleets greenhouse gas reductions and the full implementation of sustainable programs. 34 Reducing fleet fuel use INLs mass transit system uses more than 80 buses to transport 3250 employees to and from the Department of Energys Idaho desert Site each day. Last year INL reduced fleet petroleum fuel use nearly 3 percent while increasing alternative fuel use 11 percent compared to FY 2010. Since FY 2005 petroleum fuel use is down more than 25 percent and alternative fuel use is up nearly 80 percent. Recognition of achievements The U.S. Deputy Energy Secretary awarded a 2011 DOE Sustainability Performance Office Team Energy Management Award to an INL team for outstanding contributions to energy water and vehicle fleet management and associated cost-savings at DOE facilities. The five-member team was honored for integrating sustainability into INL policies and operations. Their efforts have resulted in annual cost and energy savings of more than 1.6 million more than 1 million kilowatt hours of electricity nearly 600000 gallons of fuel oil and about 190000 gallons of diesel fuel. CONTRIBUTIONS 35 Existing building improvements The Common Support Building at INLs Advanced Test Reactor Complex earned LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification in March 2011. INL also installed four cool roofs to reflect sunlight and lessen cooling costs. The new roofing meets the secretary of energys requirements for cool roofs and eliminates more than 400000 of deferred maintenance. Energy Savings Performance An Energy Savings Performance Contract brought 35-million worth of energy-saving infrastructure improvements to the labs Materials Fuels Complex. The complex transitioned from fuel oil to electricity for steam heating and replaced more than 6000 outdated lighting fixtures. The project will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 12 million pounds annually. Facility upgrades include energy-efficient lighting heating systems and building controls. New INL facilities are using xeriscaping to save water and associated landscape maintenance expenses. U.S. Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman right recognized INLs energy management efforts in November 2011. 36 EducationCONTRIBUTIONS Investing in the future INLs contributions to improve Science Technology Engineering and Math STEM education across the state and nation are helping rebuild the nuclear energy workforce. Statewide investment BEA invested 473000 in K-20 education throughout Idaho in FY 2011. Through targeted initiatives that span kindergarten to college INL reached dozens of communities hundreds of educators and thousands of students in every region of the state. 22 INL minigrants 2 Classroom makeover grants 3 i-STEM institutes 3 Regional scholastic tournaments 1 Statewide scholastic tournament 28 STEM-based community activities 7 Technical school degree certificate programs 28 Dual credit scholarships 200 Interns 20 Native American high school scholarships 10 College scholarships 200000 Students 300 K-12 schools 5 Technicalcommunity colleges 76 Percent of Idaho school districts In FY 2011 INL supported approximately 37 Workforce development INL supported seven technical school degreecertification programs. The lab also helped dozens of Idaho high school students earn technical certificates or college credits by awarding 28 dual credit grants to help students pay the extra fees charged for dual credit courses. INL awarded 10000 each to Idaho State Universitys Energy Systems Technology and Education Center ESTEC and Eastern Idaho Technical College. The money funds scholarships for students in science technology engineering and math-related fields. Two new programs were added at ESTEC which INL helped establish. INL and industry input helped launch the new renewable energy technician program and nuclear operations technology program. DOEs Nuclear Energy University Programs funds nuclear energy research and equipment upgrades at U.S. colleges and universities. It also provides scholarships and fellowships to students studying nuclear science or engineering. STEM education support INL awarded 22 mini-grants up to 2000 to help teachers across Idaho improve STEM education through classroom equipment materials and professional development. The lab also provided two 10000 classroom- makeover grants and 24 informal STEM grants worth between 2000 and 4000 to help pay for field trips classroom supplies science camps and other needs. INL also sponsored more than 28 community-based STEM events in FY 2011. i-STEM INL is a founding partner and primary sponsor of the Idaho STEM Initiative i-STEM a partnership of educators government agencies and businesses working to improve STEM education. This year approximately 400 Idaho educators attended i-STEM institutes held in three separate parts of the state. INL and partner schools received a 645000 grant through the Idaho Department of Education to help cover the cost of these institutes for three years and to study their effectiveness. Nuclear Energy University Programs INL continued to administer DOEs Office of Nuclear Energy University Programs NEUP through the Center for Advanced Energy Studies. NEUP RD contract awards announced this year included 51 recipients from 31 U.S. universities in 21 states. Partner institutions include 10 national laboratories 15 industry partners and seven others including foreign institutions. Ten minority-serving institutions were involved. INLABOUT More information Nicole Stricker 208-526-5955 In operation since 1949 INL is a science-based applied engineering national laboratory dedicated to supporting the U.S. Department of Energys missions in nuclear and energy research science and national security. 11-50779